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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Blood-brain barrier ; Cerebral edema ; Cerebral ischemia ; Hypertension ; Reperfusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary After 180 min of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, the affect of phenylephrine-induced hypertension on blood-brain barrier permeability was assessed. One of the following blood-pressure regimens was maintained during either a 30- or 120-min period of reperfusion: (a) 30/Norm, 30 min of normotensive reperfusion was allowed; (b) 30/HTN, mean arterial blood pressure was increased by 35 mm Hg during 30 min of reperfusion; (c) 120/Norm, 120 min of normotensive reperfusion was allowed; or (d) 120/HTN, mean arterial blood pressure was increased by 35 mm Hg during 120 min of reperfusion. Evans blue (30 mg/kg) was given, and brains were analyzed for Evans blue by spectrophotometry. Evans blue (μg/g brain tissue, mean ± SD) was greater (P〈0.05) in both hypertensive groups versus their time matched normotensive groups (30/HTN: 80±16 versus 18±6 in the 30/Norm group; 120/HTN: 17±6 versus 8±3 in the 120/Norm group). In addition, Evans blue was greater (P〈0.05) in both 30-min groups versus their pressure matched 120-min groups (30/Norm: 18±6 versus 8±3 in the 120/Norm group; 30/HTN: 80±16 versus 17±6 in the 120/HTN group). The data are consistent with previous studies which have demonstrated an opening of the blood-brain barrier at the onset of reperfusion. In addition, the data support a hypothesis that changes in blood-brain barrier permeability are more sensitive to hypertension in the early period of reperfusion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In the present study the “interstitial” cells of the superficial pineal gland and the nonparenchymal cells of the pineal stalk in Sprague-Dawley rats were examined ultrastructurally with the aim of defining the cells more closely. The “interstitial” cells of the superficial pineal gland do not represent a homogeneous cell population. The most abundant cell type is the mononuclear phagocyte, most easily recognized by its dark appearance and its content of primary and conspicuous secondary lysosomes. Astrocytes can be distinguished by the typical appearance of their nuclei (i.e., a thin continuous rim of heterochromatin adjacent to the nuclear membrane), identical to that of astrocytes in the CNS. Depending on the absence or presence of glial filaments and their amount, a spectrum of astrocytic cells is present. Mature astrocytes with filaments throughout their cytoplasm are rare. Immature glial cells with few or no filaments predominate. In the vicinity of blood vessels pericytes are present. In view of the fact that the “interstitial” cells could generally be identified it is suggested to abandon the term interstitial for the cells in question. In the pineal stalk mature astrocytes predominate; they have some features in common with pinealocytes, i.e., the presence of intergrade endoplasmic reticulum and grumose bodies (lysosomes). Other unusual features are a relative abundance of coated pits and vesicles. Oligodendrocytes are restricted to the proximal part of the stalk, near the deep pineal, where myelinated axons are abundant. More distally a few Schwann cells were seen.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The present study deals with the functionally enigmatic “synaptic” ribbons and spherules of guinea pig pinealocytes. Whereas the ribbons have been shown to exhibit a 24-hr rhythmicity with low numbers during the day and high numbers at night, very little of a definitive nature is known about the spherules. Sixteen male guinea pigs of the Hartley strain were perfusion fixed, 8 between 0900-1100 hr, and 8 between 2100-2300 hr. The ribbons and spherules were counted in the pineal parenchyma of the proximal, intermediate, and distal regions. In confirmation of earlier studies, it was found that “synaptic” ribbons are equally abundant in the proximal, intermediate, and distal regions of the gland, during both the day and the night, and that they increase significantly in number at night when compared with daytime values. The spherules, by contrast, are more abundant proximally and are present in greater numbers during the day than at night. As ribbons and spherules are usually not found in one and the same pinealocytic profile, and based on previous electrophysiological studies, it is proposed that the ribbons are morphological markers of nocturnally active pinealocytes, whereas spherules characterize diurnally active pinealocytes.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Pineal “synaptic” ribbons are a heterogeneous population of organelles. “Synaptic” ribbons (SR) sensu stricto, “synaptic” spherules (SS), and intermediate forms (IMF) are present. Their function and origin are unknown, and a knowledge of their prenatal development is lacking. Thus the pineal glands of prenatal, neonatal, and adult guinea pigs were prepared for electron microscopy. “Synaptic” ribbons were studied morphologically and quantitatively. The three categories of “synaptic” ribbons reported in adult pineal glands were also present in prenatal pineal glands. Their structural features, distribution, grouping, and composition patterns are similar to those in adults. “Synaptic” ribbons were first detected in pinealocytes of the distal region of a 42-day postcoitus (PC) pineal gland and were comparable with those in adults. They increased in number with age and reached a peak at 63 days PC, followed by a steep decline at 66 and 67 days PC. By day 69 PC, the numbers increased again and showed a dramatic increase after birth. Several true ribbon synapses were seen at day 63 PC between pinealocyte cell processes or between pinealocyte cell process and pinealocyte cell body. Since true ribbon synapses have not been found in adult guinea pig pinealocytes, their synaptic nature could have been lost during development. No precursors for the “synaptic” ribbons were found. The endoplasmic reticulum cisternae may be the origin for the ribbon vesicles because of their close association with the “synaptic” ribbons.
    Additional Material: 22 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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