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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Our procedure was based on existing knowledge of the immune response against opiates. Antibody against morphine-protein conjugates has been demonstrated to bind free opiate hapten2?8. Different antibody specificities have been described when the same immunising opiate was linked to the protein ...
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 241 (1973), S. 537-538 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A concentrated crude globulin fraction of hyperimmune serum obtained from a rabbit immunized with M-6-HS-BSA was prepared by precipitation with 5Q% ammonium sulfate followed by pressure dialysis. The reactivity of the antiserum has been studied in detail5. Concentrations of various opioids ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Self-Administration ; Cocaine ; Pipradrol ; Phenmetrazine ; Methylphenidate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The relationships between drug dosage per injection and response rate, and drug dosage per injection and total daily drug intake were ascertained in Rhesus monkeys which self-administered cocaine, pipradrol, methylphenidate and phenmetrazine intravenously. The study demonstrated the monkeys would self-administer all of these compounds over a wide range of dosages. Furthermore, the magnitude of reinforcement, i.e., dosage per injection, and the rate of responding in self-administering these compounds were inversely related. However, total daily drug intake was independent of the dosage per injection over a wide range of dosages. The results indicate that either the subjects can compensate for large changes in unit dosage so that daily drug intake remains stable or that a direct effect of these compounds functions in limiting their self-administration.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Self-Administration ; Cocaine ; Chlorpromazine ; Phenmetrazine ; Methylphenidate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of acute and chronic chlorpromazine treatment on psychomotor stimulant self-administration behavior in the Rhesus monkey were determined. Chlorpromazine treatment significantly increased the frequency of self-administration of cocaine, pipradrol, phenmetrazine, d-amphetamine and methylphenidate. The basis of this effect was thought to either be due to an antagonism of the reinforcing effect of these compounds or an antagonism of those actions of the psychomotor stimulants which may function in limiting their self-administration.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Self-Administration ; Cocaine ; Morphine ; Pentobarbital ; Trifluoperazine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of acute intramuscular pretreatment with several dosages of a variety of centrally acting compounds on intravenous cocaine self-administration behavior were ascertained. Pretreatment with morphine and pentobarbital produced no change in this behavior until dosages (2.0 mg/kg and 15.0 mg/kg respectively) were administered which grossly depressed grooming, exploratory, and locomotor activity behaviors, d-amphetamine (0.5–4.0 mg/kg) and phenmetrazine (2.0–12.0 mg/kg) pretreatment produced a dose-related decrease in cocaine self-administration. Trifluoperazine in dosages of 0.01–0.1 mg/kg increased the frequency of this behavior; whereas, higher dosages (0.2, 0.4 mg/kg) grossly depressed behavior. Imipramine (10–50 mg/kg) produced a dose-related decrease in cocaine self-administration. Potential mechanisms of these drug—behavior and drug—drug interactions are discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Drug discrimination ; Humans ; Stimulus effects ; Subjective effects ; Mood ; Marijuana ; Cannabinoids ; Carbon monoxide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The discriminative stimulus (DS) effects of smoked marijuana were studied by training marijuana smokers to discriminate between the effects of marijuana containing 2.7% △9-THC (M) and marijuana containing 0.0% △9-THC (P). In addition to measures of discrimination responding, subjective effects were assessed with standardized mood questionnaires. The post-smoking increase in expired air carbon monoxide (CO) level was used as an index of smoke inhalation. Relative to P cigarettes, M cigarettes increased heart rate and produced changes on eight mood scales. M cigarettes were rated as harsher and more potent than P cigarettes, and produced lower levels of CO than P cigarettes. The P-M discrimination was readily acquired by most subjects. The DS effects of marijuana showed a rapid onset, appearing within 90 s from the beginning of smoking. The DS effects were dose dependent, with 0.9% △9-THC marijuana producing primarily placebo-appropriate discrimination responding, and 1.4% △9-THC marijuana producing 100% drug-appropriate responding. This experimental paradigm could be used to determine whether the DS effects of smoked marijuana would generalize to those of other psychoactive drugs.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Phencyclidine ; Secobarbital ; Diazepam ; Eye tracking ; Smooth-pursuit eye movement ; Rhesus monkeys
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Rhesus monkeys were trained to track a moving disk using a procedure in which responses on a lever were reinforced with water delivery only when the disk, oscillating in a horizontal plane on a screen at a frequency of 0.4 Hz in a visual angle of 20°, dimmed for a brief period. Pursuit eye movements were recorded by electrooculography (EOG). IM phencyclidine, secobarbital, and diazepam injections decreased the number of reinforced lever presses in a dose-related manner. Both secobarbital and diazepam produced episodic jerky-pursuit eye movements, while phencyclidine had no consistent effects on eye movements. Lever pressing was disrupted at doses which had little effect on the quality of smooth-pursuit eye movements in some monkeys. This separation was particularly pronounced with diazepam. The similarities of the drug effects on smooth-pursuit eye movements between the present study and human studies indicate that the present method using rhesus monkeys may be useful for predicting drug effects on eye tracking and oculomotor function in humans.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Rhesus monkey ; Morphine dependence ; Naloxone ; Nalorphine ; Postdependent sensitization ; Abstinence ; Schedule-controlled responding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of morphine, naloxone, and nalorphine on responding maintained under a variable-interval schedule of food presentation were assessed in rhesus monkeys before and after successive periods of daily morphine maintenance (15.0 mg/kg/day SC). Withdrawal from morphine dependence was accomplished gradually following the first two maintenance periods and abruptly following the third period. Schedule-controlled responding was disrupted when morphine maintenance was abruptly discontinued but not when the maintenance dosage was gradually reduced to zero. Tolerance to the acute effects of IV morphine on responding developed during morphine maintenance and dissipated after daily injections were discontinued. The effects of IV naloxone and IV nalorphine following each period of morphine maintenance were generally similar to their effects in initial determinations. These data indicate that tolerance-producing regimens of repeated daily injections with morphine do not necessarily produce enduring changes in the effects of opiate antagonists on schedule-controlled behavior. Additionally, gradual withdrawal from morphine maintenance can minimize the behavioral disruptions that attend abrupt abstinence.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The behavioral effects of chronic administration of d-amphetamine in rats at a dosage of 1 mg/kg were studied with baselines involving either food or shock reinforcement. Food reinforcement was assigned according to a fixed interval or on the basis of differential reinforcement of low rate in a multiple schedule of reinforcement. Behavioral tolerance was observed in response to chronic administration of d-amphetamine when the action of drug led to a decrease in frequency of food reinforcement regardless of the schedule of reinforcement. In the second experiment, a shock avoidance situation was employed in which each avoidance response postponed the onset of grid shock. An escape contingency was provided for occasions on which an avoidance response did not occur. The chronic administration of d-amphetamine led to a uniform increase in response rate throughout the drug regimen with the consequence of decreasing rate of shock reinforcement. An hypothesis was put forward on the basis of these results which considers the development of behavioral tolerance to amphetamine administration to be a function of the drug's action in relation to its effects on the organism's behaviour in meeting reinforcement requirements.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Opioids ; Self-administration ; Progressive ratio ; Drug abuse ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Rationale: Although most opioid self-administration research has been conducted with laboratory animals, such research with humans is necessary to answer questions unique to human drug-taking behavior. Objective: We investigated the influence of morphine dose and an alternative non-drug reinforcer on choice between morphine versus money and examined the relationship between drug-reinforced behavior and subjective euphoria. Methods: Five male opioid users participated in the 7-week study. During the first 5 weeks, a single dose of morphine (0, 4, 8, 16, or 32 mg/70 kg) was available each week. On Monday, subjects received an IM injection of the dose tested that week. On Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday, subjects could work for morphine or money under a second-order, progressive ratio schedule. For each primary ratio completed on the drug lever, subjects earned one-ninth of the available drug dose, and for each ratio completed on the money lever, subjects earned $1. Total amount of drug earned was administered in a single IM injection at the end of the session; money earned was credited to the subject’s account. Results: As morphine dose increased, responding for drug increased in an orderly manner and responding for money decreased. During the final phase of the study, the lowest and highest doses that maintained drug responding for each subject were repeated, and the value of the alternative reinforcer was increased to $2 per ratio. This manipulation was associated with decreased drug-maintained responding at the lowest, but not the highest, reinforcing dose of morphine. Conclusion: The progressive ratio, concurrent access procedure may be useful in predicting the outcome of drug abuse treatment interventions that use alternate reinforcement strategies.
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