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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 47 (1991), S. 168-172 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Subject(s): Protein synthesis ; protein breakdown ; protein turnover ; N balance ; protein overfeeding ; strength training ; body composition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A general update review of the dynamic aspect of protein metabolism is presented. The effect of excess protein level on protein metabolism has been the object of a limited number of studies in man. From the information available, it appears that the primary regulatory pathway for body protein homeostasis is the process of amino acid (protein) oxidation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Subject(s): Key words Glycogen kinetics, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, glucose metabolism in vivo, 13C glucose.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A novel approach to the study of hepatic glycogen kinetics and fractional gluconeogenesis in vivo is described. Ten healthy female subjects were fed an isocaloric diet containing 55 % carbohydrate energy with a 13C abundance of 1.083 atom percent for a 3-day baseline period; then, a diet of similar composition, but providing carbohydrate with a 13C abundance of 1.093 atom percent was started and continued for 5 days. Resting respiratory gas exchanges, urinary nitrogen excretion, breath 13CO2 and plasma 13C glucose were measured every morning in the fasting state. The enrichment in 13C of hepatic glycogen was calculated from these measured data. 13C glycogen enrichment increased after switching to a 13C enriched carbohydrate diet, and was identical to the 13C enrichment of dietary carbohydrates after 3 days. The time required to renew 50 % of hepatic glycogen, as determined from the kinetics of 13C glycogen enrichment, was 18.9±3.6 h. Fractional gluconeogenesis, as determined from the difference between the enrichments of glucose oxidized originating from hepatic glycogen and plasma glucose 13C was 50.8±5.3 %. This non-invasive method will allow the study of hepatic glycogen metabolism in insulin-resistant patients. [Diabetologia (1994) 37: 517–523]
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Subject(s): L-Carnitine ; Respiratory quotient ; Fat oxidation ; Total parenteral nutrition ; Nitrogen balance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary During episodes of trauma carnitine-free total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may result in a reduction of the total body carnitine pool, leading to a diminished rate of fat oxidation. Sixteen patients undergoing esophagectomy were equally and randomly divided and received isonitrogenous (0.2 gN/kg·day) and isocaloric (35 kcal/kg·day TPN over 11 days without and with L-carnitine supplementation (12 mg/kg·day). Compared with healthy controls, the total body carnitine pool was significantly reduced in both groups prior to the operation. Without supplementation carnitine concentrations were maintained, while daily provision of carnitine resulted in an elevation of total carnitine mainly due to an increase of the free fraction. Without supplementation the cumulative urinary carnitine losses were 11.5±6.3 mmol corresponding to 15.5%±8.5% of the estimated total body carnitine pool. Patients receiving carnitine revealed a positive carnitine balance in the immediate postoperative phase, 11.1%±19.0% of the infused carnitine being retained. After 11 days of treatment comparable values for respiratory quotient, plasma triglycerides, free fatty acids, ketone bodies, and cumulative nitrogen balance were observed. It is concluded that in the patient population studied here carnitine supplementation during postoperative TPN did not improve fat oxidation or nitrogen balance.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Subject(s): Key words Cystic fibrosis ; Resting energy expenditure ; Antibiotic treatment ; TNF-α
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients often present with malnutrition which may partly be due to increased resting energy expenditure (REE) secondary to inflammation. Both REE and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), as other markers of inflammation, are elevated during respiratory exacerbations and decrease after antibiotic treatment. However, the effect of antibiotic therapy on REE and inflammation in patients without respiratory exacerbation is not known. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of such an elective antibiotic therapy on REE, TNF-α, and other serum markers of inflammation. Twelve CF patients 5F/7M, age 15.9 ± 6.1 years, weight for height ratio 89 ± 8% without clinically obvious exacerbation and treated by intravenous antibiotics were studied. Both before (D0) and after (D14) treatment, pulmonary function tests were performed. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and blood taken to measure inflammation parameters. Body weight increased by 1.1 kg from D0 to D14 (P 〈 0.001), composed of 0.3 kg fat mass and 0.8 kg fat-free mass (FFM). The forced expiratory volume at 1 s increased from 43 ± 15% of predicted at D0 to 51 ± 15% of predicted at D14 (P 〈 0.01). Mean REE was 41.1 ± 7.6 kcal/kg FFM per day at D0 and did not change significantly at D14 (40.6 ± 8.5 kcal/kg FFM per day). Serum markers of inflammation decreased from D0 to D14: C-reactive protein 17 ± 17 mg/l to 4 ± 7 mg/l (P 〈 0.05), elastase 62 ± 29 μg/l to 45 ± 18 μg/l (P 〈 0.02), orosomucoid acid 1.25 ± 0.11 g/l to 0.80 ± 0.15 g/l (P 〈 0.001), and TNF-α 37 ± 14 pg/ml to 29 ± 6 pg/ml (P = 0.05). Individual values showed a correlation between changes in REE and in TNF-α (P 〈 0.02). Conclusion The contribution of inflammation to energy expenditure is possible but appears to be minimal in cystic fibrosis patients treated by antibiotics on a regular basis in the absence of clinically obvious exacerbation.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of pediatrics 152 (1993), S. 128-131 
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Subject(s): Resting metabolic rate ; Meal induced thermogenesis ; Obesity ; Children ; Familial dependence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the thermic effect of a meal (TEM) were measured in a group of 26 prepubertal children divided into three groups: (1) children with both parents obese (n=8, group OB2); (2) children with no obese parents and without familial history of obesity (n=8, OB0); and (3) normal body weight children (n=10, C). Average RMR was similar in OB2 and OB0 children (4785±274 kJ/day vs 5091±543 kJ/day), but higher (P〈0.05) than in controls (4519±322 kJ/day). Adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) mean RMRs were comparable in the three groups of children (4891±451 kJ/day vs 5031±451 kJ/day vs 4686±451 kJ/day in OB2, OB0, and C, respectively). The thermic response to the mixed meal was similar in OB2, OB0 and C groups. The TEM calculated as the percentage of RMR was lower (P〈0.05) in obese than in control children: 10.2%±3.1% vs 10.9%±4.3% vs 14.0%±4.3% in OB2, OB0, and C, respectively. The similar RMR as absolute value as well as adjusted for FFM, and the comparable thermic effect of food in the obese children with or without familial history of obesity, failed to support the view that family history of obesity can greatly influence the RMR and the TEM of the obese child with obese parents.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of pediatrics 152 (1993), S. 222-225 
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Subject(s): Body composition ; Anthropometry ; Bioelectrical impedance analysis ; Cystic fibrosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The nutritional status of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has to be regularly evaluated and alimentary support instituted when indicated. Bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a recent method for determining body composition. The present study evaluates its use in CF patients without any clinical sign of malnutrition. Thirty-nine patients with CF and 39 healthy subjects aged 6–24 years were studied. Body density and midarm muscle circumference were determined by anthropometry and skinfold measurements. Fat-free mass was calculated taking into account the body density. Muscle mass was obtained from the urinary creatinine excretion rate. The resistance index was calculated by dividing the square of the subject's height by the body impedance. We show that fat-free mass, mid-arm muscle circumference and muscle mass are each linearly correlated to the resistance index and that the regression equations are similar for both CF patients and healthy subjects.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of pediatrics 156 (1997), S. 376-381 
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Subject(s): Key words Resting metabolic rate  ;  Fat-free mass  ;   Fat mass  ;  Childhood obesity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract During puberty fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) change quickly and these changes are influenced by sex and obesity. Since it is not completely known how these changes affect resting metabolic rate (RMR), the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of body composition, age, sex and pubertal development of postabsorptive RMR in 9.5- to 16.5-year-old obese and non-obese children. Postabsorptive RMR was measured in a sample of 371 pre- and postpubertal children comprising 193 males (116 non-obese and 77 obese) and 178 females (119 non-obese and 59 obese). RMR was assessed by indirect calorimetry using a ventilated hood system for 45 min after an overnight fast. Body composition (FFM and FM) was estimated from skinfold measurements. The mean (± SD) RMR was significantly (P 〈 0.001) lower in non-obese (males: 5600 ± 972 kJ/24h; females: 5112 ± 632 kJ/24h) than in obese (males: 7223 ± 1220 kJ/24h; females: 6665 ± 1106 kJ/24h) children. This difference became non-significant when RMR was adjusted for body composition (FFM + FM). However, the difference between the genders still remained significant (control male: 6118 ± 507, control female: 5652 ± 507, P 〈 0.001; obese male: 6256 ± 507, obese female: 5818 ± 507 kJ/24h, P 〈 0.001). The main determinant of RMR was FFM. In the whole cohort, FFM explained 79.8% of the variation in RMR, followed by age, gender and FM adding further 3.8%, 1.1% and 0.8% to the predictability of RMR, respectively. No significant contribution for study group (obese, non-obese), pubertal stage, or fat distribution was found in the regression for RMR. The adjusted value of RMR (for FFM and FM) slightly, but significantly (P 〈 0.01) decreased between the age of 10–16 years, demonstrating the important effect of age on RMR. Conclusions The resting metabolic rate of obese and control children is not different when adjusted for body composition. The main determinant of RMR is the fat-free mass, however, age, gender and fat mass are also significant factors. Pubertal development and fat distribution do not influence RMR independently from the changes in body composition.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Subject(s): Nuclear reactions
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Nuclear Physics, Section A 346 (1980), S. 281-284 
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Subject(s): Nuclear Reactions
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Nuclear Physics, Section A 520 (1990), S. c401-c409 
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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