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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: China ; gastric carcinoma ; Japan ; migrant ; subsite ; the Philippines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: We examined the incidence of gastric carcinoma in Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino residents of the United States to obtain additional information about the etiology of this disease. Methods: The age, race, and birthplace of residents of Hawaii, San Francisco/Oakland, and northwestern Washington who were diagnosed with gastric carcinoma during the period 1973–1986 were obtained from population-based registries, and a special tabulation from the 1980 Census was used to estimate the number of person-years at risk for each category of resident. Results: The incidence of gastric carcinoma in Japanese- Americans was three to six times higher than that of US-born whites, with the highest rates occurring in those persons born in Japan. The rate in US-born Chinese and Chinese men who immigrated to the US was similar to that of whites, whereas the rate in Chinese female migrants was twice that of white American women. Filipino men, regardless of birthplace, were only at 60% the risk of US-born white men, while their female counterparts had a rate very similar to that of US-born white women. The high incidence observed among Japanese- Americans and Chinese female immigrants was largely restricted to sites other than the gastric cardia. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that dietary and other lifestyle differences between the different generations of Japanese- Americans, and between Japanese residents of the US and Japan may provide clues regarding the etiologies of stomach cancers that arise beyond the gastric cardia.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cancer ; census ; epidemiology ; methodology ; marital status ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In registry-based population studies on marital status in relation to cancer, incidence rates sometimes have been calculated using marital status-specific populations that have been estimated by interpolation and extrapolation from census data as a denominator. Alternatively, other cancers from the same registry have been used to estimate the proportion of the population in each marital-status category in the calculation of the relative risk (RR) of a given cancer. Using cancer registry data from four United States populations for the years 1979–87, we compared the relative incidence estimated using each of the two methods. For selected cancers diagnosed during 1979–81, the age-adjusted risks of never-married Black persons were 1.5 to 2.2 times those of married persons when the population size was estimated from census data. The corresponding RRs were 0.7 to 1.1 when the ‘control’ cancers were used. Among Whites, the differences between the two methods were about 20 to 30 percent. For both races, the difference between the methods was greater still for the years for which we relied on extrapolation to estimate the population (1981–87). The differences between the risk estimates from the two methods may be related to underenumeration in the census, inconsistent definitions of marital status between cancer registries and the census, errors in the extrapolation of the population, and/or the possible association of the incidence of ‘control’ cancers with marital status. In the US, while each method has some potential for bias, we believe that the likelihood of bias is relatively greater using the censusbased method.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Asian-Americans ; colorectal neoplasms ; incidence ; SEER program
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: To examine the incidence of colorectal cancer among Asian residents of the United States according to country of birth. Methods: We determined the incidence of colorectal cancer during 1973–1986 among Asian residents in three areas of the western United States (Hawaii, San Francisco/Oakland SMSA, and western Washington state) in relation to country of birth. Numerators for the rates were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program; a special tabulation of the 1980 US Census was used to estimate the size and composition of the population at risk. Results: US-born Japanese men experienced incidence rates of colorectal cancer twice as high as foreign-born Japanese men and about 60% higher than those of US-born white men. Incidence among US-born Japanese women was about 40% higher than that among Japanese women born in Japan or US-born white women. Foreign-born Chinese men had about the same incidence of colorectal cancer as US-born white men, while US-born Chinese men experienced slightly reduced rates. Chinese women had rates that were generally 30–40% lower than that of US-born white women, regardless of place of birth. Incidence rates for both US-born and foreign-born Filipinos were 20–50% those of US-born whites. Conclusions: These findings suggest that one or more exposures or characteristics that differ between Japanese migrants and their descendants affect the development of colorectal cancer.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: China ; Hawaii ; Japan ; migrant studies ; the Philippines ; thyroid neoplasms ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We compared incidence rates of primary cancer of the thyroid among United States-born and foreign-born Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino residents of the US with rates among US-born Whites. Thyroid cancers diagnosed between 1973 and 1986 occurring among individuals 15 to 84 years of age residing in western Washington state, the San Francisco-Oakland (California) area, or the state of Hawaii were included in the analysis. Population estimates by age, gender, ethnicity, and country of birth were obtained for these areas from the US Bureau of the Census. Filipino women born in the Philippines had 3.2 (95 percent confidence interval=2.7–3.8) times the rate of thyroid cancer of US-born White women, while US-born Filipino women were not at any increased risk. Philippine-born Filipino men also had a relatively high rate of thyroid cancer (relative risk [RR]=2.6), more so than US-born Filipino men (RR=1.5). Among Japanese, risk of thyroid cancer varied by birthplace, but the direction of the association differed by gender and by histologic type of cancer. No clear association with birthplace was noted among Chinese men or women. These data suggest that persons residing in one or more regions from which Filipino-Americans migrated have been exposed to environmental influences that have increased their subsequent risk of thyroid cancer.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cancer surveillance system ; cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia ; cutaneous melanoma ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Stimulated by a recent report from a Norwegian pathology institute of an excess risk of melanoma among women with cervical neoplasia, we analyzed the relevant data from a population-based cancer registry serving western Washington State (United States). Among 11,693 women diagnosed with cervicalintra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) between 1974 and 1989 who were followed-up for at least a year, 14 cases of cutaneous melanoma were identified, in comparison with 13.7 cases expected (relative risk=1.0,95 percent confidence interval=0.5-1.7) based on the rates of melanoma among all women who resided in this area. While these results are at odds with those recently reported from the pathology institute, they are similar to those obtained in previous cancer-registry studies in several countries, which found little or no excess occurrence of melanoma following cervical cancer.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Liver neoplasms ; incidence rates ; migrants ; Asian Americans ; Chinese Americans ; Japanese Americans ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The incidence of primary liver cancer in Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino migrants to the United States and their descendants is compared with that of United States-born Whites. Incident liver cancer cases were ascertained between 1973 and 1986 from population-based cancer registries serving the San Francisco/Oakland (CA) metropolitan area, 13 counties of western Washington, and Hawaii. The population of these three areas, with regard to age, race, and country of birth, was estimated from a special tabulation of the 1980 US census. Rates of primary liver cancer were higher for men born in Asia than Asian men born in the US, who, in turn, had higher rates than did US Whites (respective annual rates per 100,000: Chinese, 26.5 and 9.8; Japanese, 16.5 and 6.6; Filipinos, 11.4 and 6.5; US Whites, 3.4). Among Asian American women, the trends were not as consistent (respective annual rates per 100,000: Chinese, 2.2 and 3.7; Japanese, 1.9 and 1.4; Filipino, 2.6 and 0; US Whites, 1.1). In general, liver cancer incidence among Asian Americans was lower than among residents of Asia. These findings are compatible with substantial variation among Asians in the prevalence of one or more etiologic factors for liver cancer, such as hepatitis-B infection and aflatoxin consumption, in relation to residence and place of birth.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Breast neoplasms ; menopausal status ; second primary neoplasms ; United States ; women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To evaluate predictors of contralateral breast cancer risk, we examined data from a nested case-control study of second primary cancers among a cohort of women in western Washington (United States) diagnosed with breast cancer during 1978 through 1990 and identified through a population-based cancer registry. Cases included all women in the cohort who subsequently developed contralateral breast cancer at least six months after the initial diagnosis, but prior to 1992 (n=234). Controls were sampled randomly from the cohort, matched to cases on age, stage, and year of initial breast cancer diagnosis. Information on potential risk factors for second primary cancer was obtained through medical record abstractions and physician questionnaires. Women who were postmenopausal due to a bilateral oophorectomy (i.e., a surgical menopause) at initial breast cancer diagnosis had a reduction in contralateral breast cancer risk compared with premenopausal women (matched odds ratio [mOR]=0.25, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.09–0.68), whereas no reduction in risk was noted among postmenopausal women who had had a natural menopause (mOR=0.90, CI=0.39–2.09). Among postmenopausal women, there was a suggestion of a lower risk associated with relatively high parity (2+). A family history of breast cancer was associated with an increased risk (mOR=1.96, CI=1.22–5.15) and varied little by menopausal status. Having an initial tumor with a lobular component (c.f. a ductal histology) was not related strongly to risk (mOR=1.47, CI=0.79–2.74). The results of the present and earlier studies argue that we have limited ability to predict the occurrence of a contralateral breast tumor. Better predictors will be required before diagnostic and preventive interventions can be targeted to subgroups of patients with unilateral breast cancer.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Asian-Americans ; China ; Japan ; migrants ; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ; Philippines ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We examined the incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino residents of the United States to obtain further clues about the etiology of the disease. The age, race, and birthplace of residents of Hawaii, San Francisco/Oakland (California), and western Washington who had received a diagnosis of NHL during the period 1973–86 were obtained from population-based cancer registries, and a special tabulation from the 1980 Census was used to estimate the number of person-years at risk for each category of resident. The incidence of NHL in each of the Asian groups examined was 35 to 85 percent that of US-born Whites. However, there was no consistent trend of increasing incidence with increasing generation of residence in any of the groups. In Asian-Americans, the risk of small cell lymphocytic and plasmacytoid lymphoma was 10 to 85 percent that of Whites, although no clear trends of risk with generation of residence in the US were observed. They also were at a reduced risk of follicular lymphoma, and in Chinese and Japanese persons, the risk was lower in first generation than in later generation migrants (Chinese: Asian-born relative risk [RR]=0.11, US-born, RR=0.84; Japanese: Asian-born, RR=0.15, US-born, RR 0.36). The risk of diffuse lymphoma was similar in Chinese-and Japanese-Americans and US-born Whites. We conclude that, with the exception of follicular lymphoma, the basis for the relatively low incidence of NHL in Asian-Americans does not lie in exposures or characteristics that differ between the migrants themselves and their descendants.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 110 (1982), S. 35-42 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Endothelial cell-conditioned medium contains two classes of factors distinguishable by behavior during dialysis and on specificity for cell type. One species, which diffuses through dialysis tubing with an exclusion limit of 6,000 to 8,000 daltons, supports growth of bovine aortic endothelial (BAE) cells in medium containing a growth limiting concentration of serum (0.2% serum). The production of this material appears to depend upon the presence of serum in the medium being conditioned. The activity increases with time of exposure of BAE cells to serum and with increasing concentration of serum present in the incubation medium. This activity cannot be replaced by exogenous epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, insulin, or thymidine. The second species, the endothelial cell-derived growth factor (EC-DGF), is retained by dialysis tubing with an exclusion limit of 6,000 to 8,000 daltons. ECDGF stimulates the growth of smooth muscle cells but does not support BAE cell growth in limiting serum concentrations. Unlike the dialyzable species, the production of ECDGF is independent of previous incubation of BAE cell cultures in serum. These studies suggest that BAE cells are able to utilize serum components to produce conditioning factors for their own growth that are distinct from the higher molecular weight ECDGF.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Neovascularization was studied in the chorioallantoic memebrane of the chick embryo after implantation of bovine aortic endothelial and smooth muscule cells, Swiss and BALB/c 3T3 cells and human diploid fibroblasts cultured separately on microcarrier beads. Quantitative analysis of neovascularization indicated a 3 1/2-fold increase in the number of blood vessels responding to endothelial cells while smooth muscle cells induced a twofold increase when compared to the response of beads without cells. Skin fibroblasts and Swiss 3T3 cells did not elicit a comparable response. The marked angiogenic response induced by endothelial cells was characterized by a 137% increase in total vessel length and a 35% increase in average vessel area when compared to controls. Two of the properties required for an angiogenesis factor - stimulation of cellular migration and proliferation - can also be demonstrated using endothelial cell-conditioned medium in cell culture systems. Medium from cultured bovine aortic endothelium stimulates DNA synthesis, proliferation, and migration of smooth muscle cells. In adition, conditioned media from both endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells produced an angiogenic response in the chorioallantoic membrane assay, which was comparable to that produced by intact cells growing on microcarrier beads. Similar responses were not evident with medium conditioned by other cell types. These results indicate the potential importance of endothelial cells and endothelial cell products in regulating blood vessel growth.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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