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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  Evidenzbasierte Medizin - Anspruch und Wirklichkeit; 102. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft; 20040923-20040926; Berlin; DOC04dogP 218 /20040922/
    Publication Date: 2004-09-21
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  104. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft (DOG); 20060921-20060924; Berlin; DOC06dogDO.12.02 /20060918/
    Publication Date: 2006-09-19
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  104. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft (DOG); 20060921-20060924; Berlin; DOC06dogP079 /20060918/
    Publication Date: 2006-09-19
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Hearing and the vibration sense in birds have been analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. The minimum of the intensity threshold of hearing is at about 3,200 cycles p. sec., about the birds own voice. The birds sensibility is here like that of man. The influence on threshold by damages of parts of the middle ear showed that bone conduction does not play any role in physiological hearing. Extirpation of both cochlea and lagena is followed by complete loss of hearing ability. Birds have a well-developed sense of vibration. It is possible to train birds—after extirpation of the auditory sense organ—to react to vibrations of the sitting rot, from 100 to 3,200 cycles. The maximal sensibility to vibration is found at 800 cycles. Frequency discrimination is very low. The perception of vibration in birds takes place by the means of “Strang” of the “Herbst sche Körperchen” between tibia and fibula. The present knowledges of the vibration sense explains former different results concerning the hearing of birds after extirpation of the whole labyrinth. Hearing and the sense of vibration are distinctly different senses also in birds. But some central connection seems to exist, because after successful training of one sense the task is solved also by the other without new learning.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The behaviour of bullfinches (Pyrrhula) after removal of the cochlea is studied. The influence of acoustical and optical stimuli upon the social contacts is compared. Parts of the social behaviour are controlled mainly acoustically, e.g. the attraction of a single bird by a calling fellow. Also the final raising of young birds is not possible without acoustical contacts between parents and offspring. The formation of pairs, however, nest-building, laying of fertilized eggs, and breeding are performed normally by birds without hearing. Also the social order within a group of bullfinches regulates itself without acoustical perception by its members. The alarming behaviour seems to be transferred within a group by optical signals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The special form and the number of nerve cells of the auditory centres in the owl's medulla are described and compared with those of other birds. The highest degree of differentiation is found in the most nocturnal species,Tyto alba. Comparing the number of auditory nerve cells in the medulla with the weight of the brain in birds of different size, an unexpectedly low rate of increase was found.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 9 (1953), S. 428-429 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The circulatory efficiency of the snail's heart depends upon the cooperation of the heart s. str. and the pericardium. The circulation rate has been determined; it depends upon the pressure in the lung vein and in the aorta. Heart activity becomes most efficient (“optimal”) if the input pressure is about 11, the output pressure about 19 cm H2O (table). Increasing circulatory demand decreases the frequency of the heart.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Pulse frequencies for several species of crayfish were collected over a range of body weight from 10−5–103 g. Pulse rate varies in crayfish as (body weight)−0,12; the size of the animal therefore influences the pulse rate much less than in warm blooded vertebrata, but in the same degree as in some mollusca. It is supposed that the similarity between crayfish, snails and mussels is related to their open circulatory system.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die vom runden Fenster abgeleiteten Cochlea-Potentiale von „Barred Owl“ (Strix varia) und Wellensittich (Melopsittacus undulatus) werden in einer ursprünglich für Säuger entwickelten Apparatur untersucht. Verbesserungen der schon früher erarbeiteten präparativen Technik für Kleinvögel werden angegeben. Die Cochlea-Potentiale der Eule werden in ihrer Abhängigkeit von Intensität, Dauer und Polarität (Phase) eines ursprünglich rechteckigen Reizimpulses dargestellt. Nur die Stärke des Klicks hat einen wesentlichen Einfluß auf ihre Ausbildung; dies stimmt mit den Beobachtungen an Säugern überein. Nur die Mikrophon-Komponente der elektrischen Schwankungen im Innenohr des Wellensittichs verhält sich wie bei Eule und Säuger. Die auf die Entladungen von Nervenzellen zurückgeführte Komponente N1 zeigt eine gründlich verschiedene Empfindlichkeit für die Dauer und die Phase des Reizes. Ähnliche Verhältnisse scheinen nach älteren Untersuchungen bei der Taube zu bestehen. In der Diskussion werden die Unterschiede zwischen Sittich (und Taube) einerseits, Eule (und Säuger) andererseits in Parallele zur Größenentwicklung von Cochlea und Fußplatte des Gehörknöchelchens gesetzt. Zur Erklärung der Empfindlichkeit der nervösen Entladungen für die sich mit der Reizdauer und -phase ändernde Bewegungsweise der Basilarmembran wird angenommen, daß die Verlagerung der Haarzellen zum ovalen Fenster erregend, in entgegengesetzter Richtung hemmend wirkt. Bei kurzen Reizen tritt Interferenz beider Wirkungen auf.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of comparative physiology 45 (1962), S. 570-580 
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Für die beiden Ohren von Asio otus, einer Eule mit starker bilateraler Asymmetrie der Ohröffnungen, werden Richtungsdiagramme in der Horizontal- und Vertikalebene aufgestellt. Der erwartete Einfluß der morphologischen Asymmetrie läßt sich in diesen nicht gesichert nachweisen. Es wird danach vermutet, daß die Asymmetrie erst dynamisch, im Bewegungsspiel der Ohrklappen und -ränder, zur Wirkung kommt. Unter den Versuchsbedingungen (Narkose, geöffnete Ohrklappen) beträgt die binaurale Intensitätsdifferenz 10 bis 12 db. Die Ohren sind schräg nach vorne-abwärts am empfindlichsten. Die zwischen der Erregung beider Ohren auftretende Zeitdifferenz beträgt maximal 0,4 ms; sie setzt sich zu etwa gleichen Teilen aus der physikalischen Laufzeit- und der physiologischen Latenzzeit-Differenz zusammen. Bei Annahme von zentralen Auswertemechanismen, die mit gleicher Genauigkeit wie beim Menschen arbeiten, ergibt sich ein akustisches Minimum separabile der Waldohreule von etwa 10.
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