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  • 1
    Keywords: GENE-EXPRESSION ; DIFFERENTIATION ; DOWN-REGULATION ; ONCOGENE ; PROGNOSTIC-SIGNIFICANCE ; p21 ; HEMATOPOIETIC-CELLS ; ACUTE MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA ; SELF-RENEWAL ; JUVENILE MYELOMONOCYTIC LEUKEMIA
    Abstract: Overexpression of ecotropic viral integration site 1 (EVI1) is associated with aggressive disease in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Despite of its clinical importance, little is known about the mechanism through which EVI1 confers resistance to antileukemic drugs. Here, we show that a human myeloid cell line constitutively overexpressing EVI1 after infection with a retroviral vector (U937_EVI1) was partially resistant to etoposide and daunorubicin as compared to empty vector infected control cells (U937_vec). Similarly, inducible expression of EVI1 in HL-60 cells decreased their sensitivity to daunorubicin. Gene expression microarray analyses of U937_EVI1 and U937_vec cells cultured in the absence or presence of etoposide showed that 77 and 419 genes were regulated by EVI1 and etoposide, respectively. Notably, mRNA levels of 26 of these genes were altered by both stimuli, indicating that EVI1 regulated genes were strongly enriched among etoposide regulated genes and vice versa. One of the genes that were induced by both EVI1 and etoposide was CDKN1A/p21/WAF, which in addition to its function as a cell cycle regulator plays an important role in conferring chemotherapy resistance in various tumor types. Indeed, overexpression of CDKN1A in U937 cells mimicked the phenotype of EVI1 overexpression, similarly conferring partial resistance to antileukemic drugs.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23457546
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Key words Thrombotic ; thrombocytopenic purpura ; Thrombotic microangiopathy ; Hemolytic uremic syndrome ; Intensive Care Unit ; Critical illness ; Plasma exchange
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: Description of diagnostic procedures, treatment modalities and intensive care management of patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Design: Descriptive study. Setting: Internal medicine Intensive Care Unit (University Hospital of Vienna). Patients: Six patients (two after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation), treated for 12 episodes of TTP. Interventions: Treatment with plasma exchange (fresh frozen plasma, 50–80 ml/kg per day), prednisone (0.75 mg/kg b.i.d.) and, in some cases, vincristine. Supportive therapy as needed. Measurements and results: Patients were admitted to the ICU because of neurological symptoms with acute onset (42% mild, 58% severe), hemolysis and thrombocytopenia. Additional symptoms were fever (50%), bleeding tendency (50%), acute renal failure (42%) and metabolic derangement (8%). Initial laboratory values showed thrombocytopenia (median 17 G/l), hemolysis (median hemoglobin 10.0 g/dl, lactate dehydrogenase 635 U/l, reticulocyte count 175 G/l) with red cell fragmentation. Coagulation tests were normal. Respiratory assist was needed in six episodes (severe seizures, cardiopulmonary resuscitation). In patients without preexisting hematological abnormality the platelet counts exceeded 100 G/l after 3–8 cycles of plasma exchange. In patients after bone marrow transplantation, the platelet counts never exceeded 40 G/l, but the lactate dehydrogenase levels dropped significantly. The neurological symptoms disappeared in all patients and renal function normalized. One patient died before the initiation of therapy. Three patients relapsed 1–3 times between 2 weeks and 5 months after the last episode. The relapses were associated with symptoms similar to the first episode and responded promptly to plasma therapy. Conclusions: TTP is a rare, but life-threatening disorder. It needs immediate diagnosis and has a good prognosis after adequate treatment with plasma exchange.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Hepatosplenic abscesses ; AML ; Diagnosis ; Sonography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In order to determine the frequency of hepatosplenic abscesses in AML patients during chemotherapy and to evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of this complication we performed a prospective study over a 28-month period. Fifty-five consecutive patients with de novo AML or relapse who received intensive chemotherapy underwent regular ultrasound examinations. In 16 patients (29.1%) hepatic and/or splenic abscesses were detected sonographically. Histopathological evidence for abscess formation was obtained in five of these 16 patients. In three patients granulation tissue and in one patient necrotizing granulomas were found. Causative micro-organisms were proven in only three patients:Candida hyphae were demonstrated in one patient, gram-positive cocci in another. Bacteria and fungi were seen in the tissue specimen of the third patient. Patients with hepatosplenic abscesses had significantly prolonged fever after neutrophil recovery but did not differ from patients without abscesses in any other laboratory or clinical features. Due to the absence of specific alerting clinical and laboratory signs and symptoms of hepatosplenic abscesses, routine ultrasound examination is required for detection of this complication. The presence of hepatic and/or splenic abscesses does not necessarily worsen the prognosis, but it may influence the decision on further chemotherapy and antimicrobial treatment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia ; Treatment ; Granulocyte colony stimulating factor ; Febrile neutropenia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Our purpose was to evaluate the ability of re-combinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (r-metHuG-CSF) as an adjunct to induction chemo-therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to ameliorate chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and thus allow patients to receive full doses of chemotherapy on time. Sixteen consecutive patients with adult ALL (13 de novo, three relapsed) were treated with induction chemo-therapy according to the BMFT protocol and received in addition r-metHuG-CSF (200μg/m2/day). Patients who were treated with the same induction chemotherapy but without G-CSF between 1982 and 1990 served as controls. Fifteen of the 16 patients achieved complete hematological remission. One patient died because of fungal septicemia. Compared with historical controls, G-CSF-treated patients had a significantly faster neutrophil recovery in phase I, resulting in neutrophil counts 〉 1000/μl at day 17 vs day 26 (in median) in controls. In phase II, the onset of severe leukocytopenia (〈 1500/μl) was significantly (p = 0.01) delayed and the degree of leukocytopenia less pronounced (mean nadir 3300/μl) in G-CSF-treated patients compared with controls (1880/μl). The number of days of febrile neutropenia was not different in phase I. In phase II it was lower in study patients (0 vs 1.1 days), but the difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.09). Full doses of chemo-therapy could be given on time to 11/13 (85%) G-CSF pa-tients but to only 7/30 (23%) controls. These data indicate that (a) G-CSF can be given along with chemotherapy in induction treatment of ALL without compromising efficacy; (b) the duration of neutropenia in phase I is markedly shortened and the degree of leukocytopenia in phase II ameliorated; (c) these beneficial effects allow patients to receive full doses of chemotherapy on time.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia Treatment ; Prognostic factors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Sixty-one consecutive patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (B-ALL excluded) were treated with the protocol described by Hoelzer et al. [15]. The complete remission (CR) rate was 85% (52/61 patients). Three patients died during induction therapy; six patients were refractory to treatment. The median duration of continuous complete remission (CCR), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival was 41.5, 41.4, and 40.8 months, respectively. At 5 years the probability of CCR was 49%, of DFS 43.5%, and of overall survival 41.6%. In the univariate analysis older age (〉35 years,p=0.01), bcr-abl positivity (p=0.007), and time to CR (〉4 weeks,p=0.05) were significantly unfavorable prognostic factors. In the multivariate analysis only age (p=0.006) and time to CR (p = 0.02) remained significant. Thus, our data confirm the high efficacy of this treatment regimen with regard to CR rate and remission duration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Acute myelogenous leukemia ; Allogeneic marrow transplantation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Between February 1982 and April 1995, 62 patients (37 male, 25 female) with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with a median age of 32 years (19–51 years) received allogeneic marrow grafts from an HLA-identical sibling (n=60) or an HLA-mismatched family member (n=2). At the time of transplant, 35 patients were in first complete remission (CR), five in second CR, eight were primary refractory, eight were in untreated relapse and six in refractory relapse. The FAB subtypes were as follows: M1 (n=17), M2 (n=13), M3 (n=6), M4 (n=19), M5 (n=6), M6 (n=1). For conditioning most patients were given total body irradiation combined with cyclophosphamide (CY,n=50) or CY and busulfan (n=9). For graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis patients received cyclosporin A (CSA) and methotrexate (MTX) (n=32), MTX alone (n=12), CSA and methylprednisone (n=5), or CSA alone (n=13). As of April 1995, probability of leukemia-free survival projected at 10 years after BMT was 60% for patients transplanted in first CR compared with 10% for patients transplanted beyond first CR. Transplant-related mortality was 11% after BMT in first CR and 39% after BMT beyond first CR. Probability of relapse projected at 10 years after BMT is 32% for patients who received transplants in first CR and 81% for patients who received transplants beyond first CR. Thus, high-dose chemo/radiotherapy followed by allogeneic marrow infusion has a high curative potential for patients with AML who receive transplants in first CR and offers the chance of long-term disease-free survival for some patients with advanced disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Key words Acute myeloid leukemia ; Spontaneous remission ; Hypergammaglobulinemia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Spontaneous remissions of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have been documented in association with infection as well as blood transfusions. Activation of the immune system including an increased number of NK cells and cytokine release have been implicated in the mechanism of this phenomenon. We have observed spontaneous remissions in two patients with AML (one with a t(8;21)-positive M2, one with M5b), both occurring after infection and blood transfusions. The bone marrow showed a reduction of blast cells from 65% to 2% or 40% to 1%, respectively. Remission was accompanied by a marked polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in both cases (IgG values of 6420 and 2160 mg/dl, IgA of 802 and 811 mg/dl, respectively). A concomitant increase in bone marrow plasma cells was observed in both patients. Reduction of AML1/ETO PCR positivity from one-step to two-step PCR (approximately 100-fold) was documented in the patient with a t(8;21), while a regression of lymph node and skin leukemic infiltrations occurred in the patient with M5b. One patient relapsed after 4 months, at a time when his serum immunoglobulin levels had markedly decreased. The other patient is in continuous remission after 14 months. These cases suggest a potential role for a humoral immune response in the mechanism of spontaneous remission.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Key words Acute myeloid leukemia ; t(8;21) ; Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction ; AML1/ETO
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The chromosomal translocation t(8;21) (q22;q22) is often associated with acute myeloid leukemia with maturation (AML-M2) and can be detected by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the AML1/ETO fusion mRNA. We investigated the prevalence of t(8;21) and AML1/ETO in 204 unselected patients with AML and compared the results of cytogenetic analysis with these of RT-PCR. Fifteen of 204 AML patients (7.4%) showed a t(8;21) in karyotype analysis. In 17 of 204 patients (8.3%) AML1/ETO was detected by RT-PCR. All patients who had a t(8;21) in conventional karyotyping also showed the gene rearrangement in molecular analysis, including one patient with a three-way translocation t(5;8;21). AML1/ETO was also detected in two AML patients lacking the t(8;21) cytogenetically. One had a normal diploid karyotype bone marrow (BM) at diagnosis; she has now been in CCR for 12 months. The second patient showed a complex chromosomal anomaly involving chromosome 21, but without a typical 8;21 translocation (BM in relapse). He died in relapse after an overall survival of 60 months. These data indicate that the results of karyotyping and RT-PCR are not completely identical, and molecular biology identifies approximately an additional 5–10% of AML1/ETO positive cases. The clinical relevance of our findings will have to be evaluated with larger patient numbers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Key words Chronic myeloid leukemia ; Graft-versus-host disease ; Transplantation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is the only curative treatment for patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML); however, recurrence of disease remains a major cause of treatment failure. A 26-year-old man with chronic myeloid leukemia who had a cytogenetic relapse 49 months after his first syngeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) and hematologic relapse 23 months thereafter progressed to blast crisis despite treatment with IFN-alpha for 15 months. He underwent a second transplantation in early second blast crisis, 92 months after the first BMT with PBPC from his previous donor. Successful hematological reconstitution occurred. On day 50 after the second transplantation the patient developed a generalized rash, hepatomegaly, and cholestatic signs. Skin and liver biopsy revealed changes compatible with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Treatment with cyclosporin A (CSA) and prednisone was started, and the GVHD resolved. Fifteen months after PBPC transplantation he had a molecular relapse. Despite discontinuation of CSA, the patient progressed into blast crisis 7 months later. The occurrence of GVHD and disappearance of the BCR-ABL-positive clone suggest that a graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect may have been operative for 15 months in a patient given a second syngeneic BMT in blast crisis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Key words Related and unrelated donor BMT ; CML ; Long-term follow-up
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Between January 1983 and December 1997, 88 patients (36 female, 52 male, median age 37 years, range 19–57) with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) at the University Hospital of Vienna. Sixty patients were in chronic phase, 18 in accelerated phase, and ten in blast crisis. Marrow donors were HLA-identical siblings for 64 patients (BM 58, PBSC 6), 2-antigen-mismatched related donors (RD) for two, HLA-identical unrelated donors (URD) for 17, and 1-antigen-mismatched URD for five. The median time from diagnosis to BMT was 22 months (range 2–91), and 63 patients had received prior interferon (IFN)-alpha therapy, 46 (73%) for more than 6 months. Conditioning therapy consisted of cyclophosphamide (CY) and total body irradiation (TBI) in 71 patients and CY and busulfan (BU) in 16. One patient received etoposide and TBI. For graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis methotrexate (MTX) was given to 12 patients, MTX and cyclosporin A (CSA) to 67, CSA alone to four, and CSA and methylprednisolone to five. Durable engraftment was documented in 80 of 82 patients (98%). As of December 31, 1997, 52 patients (59%) were alive, 38 (58%) after sibling transplantation with a median observation time of 73 months and 14 (64%) after URD transplantation with a median observation time of 12 months. Probability of overall survival is 59%, for patients undergoing transplantation in chronic phase and 44% for patients undergoing transplantation in advanced stage CML. Probability of disease-free survival (DFS) after sibling and URD BMT is 55% and 59%, respectively. Ten patients (12%) experienced relapse of CML. Transplant-related mortality was 32% both after RD and after URD transplantation. Acute GVHD occurred in 53 of 80 evaluable patients (66%), consisting of grade III or IV in 14 patients (18%). Chronic GVHD developed in 40 of 63 eligible patients (63%), including extensive disease in 26 patients (41%). Thus, sibling and URD BMT offer high cure rates with acceptable toxicity to patients with CML.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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