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  • 1
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Protein phosphorylation ; Allosteric regulation ; DNA replication ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cdc7/Dbf4 protein kinase is required for the initiation of DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cdc7/Dbf4 protein kinase is not a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), but is regulated in a similar fashion in that the Cdc7 kinase subunit is inactive in the absence of the regulatory subunit Dbf4. In contrast to what is known about CDKs, Cdc7/Dbf4 protein kinase is shown to be an oligomer in the cell in this report. Genetic data that support this claim include interallelic complementation between several cdc7ts alleles and the cdc7T281A allele and also the results of experiments using the two-hybrid system with Cdc7 in both DNA-binding and transactivation domain plasmids. A molecular interaction between two different Cdc7 molecules was shown by using a HA-tagged Cdc7 protein that differs in size from the wild-type Cdc7 protein: an anti-HA antibody immunoprecipitates both proteins in appproximately equal stoichiometry. Analysis of the native molecular weight of Cdc7/Dbf4 protein kinase is consistent with oligomerization of the Cdc7 protein in that complexes of about 180 and 300 kDa were found. Oligomers of Cdc7 protein may exist for the purpose of allosteric regulation or to allow phosphorylation of multiple substrate protein molecules.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Protein phosphorylation ; DNA replication ; Cell cycle checkpoint ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This article presents the identification and characterization of the PAK1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the biochemical characterization of the protein kinase activity that it encodes. Overexpression of the PAK1 gene product suppresses temperature-sensitive mutations of the pol1 (cdc17) gene, which encodes DNA polymerase α. Overexpression and suppression can be achieved either by expressing PAK1 from a high-copy-number plasmid, or by GAL1-induced transcription of PAK1. Gene disruption of PAK1 indicates that it is not an essential gene. The PAK1 gene encodes a protein with a kinase consensus domain. By deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the complete and active kinase consensus domain is required for suppression. A glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-Pak1 fusion protein, overproduced in bacteria, can be purified in an active form with glutathione affinity beads or by immunoprecipitation. Thus, other protein subunits of Pak1 are not required for its activity. In vitro protein kinase assays show that GST-Pak1 can autophosphorylate, and can phosphorylate casein as an exogenous substrate. The phenotype of the suppressed cdc17-1 cells indicates that Pak1 suppression is inefficient and does not restore the wild-type phenotype. Pak1 suppression requires Rad9 function, but Pak1 does not affect Rad9 function. Overexpression of PAK1 does not enhance the expression of the POL1 gene. Pak1 may function by modifying and partially stabilizing thermolabile DNA polymerases, perhaps during DNA repair, because pak1 mutant cells are caffeine sensitive.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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