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  • 1
    Abstract: gammadelta T cells are not MHC restricted, elicit cytotoxicity against various malignancies, are present in early post-transplant phases in novel stem cell transplantation strategies and have been shown to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). These features make gammadelta T cells promising effector cells for antibody-based immunotherapy in pediatric patients with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To evaluate combination of human gammadelta T cells with CD19 antibodies for immunotherapy of B-lineage ALL, gammadelta T cells were expanded after a GMP-compliant protocol and ADCC of both primary and expanded gammadelta T cells with an Fc-optimized CD19 antibody (4G7SDIE) and a bi-specific antibody with the specificities CD19 and CD16 (N19-C16) was evaluated in CD107a-degranulation assays and intracellular cytokine staining. CD107a, TNFalpha, and IFNgamma expression of primary gammadelta T cells were significantly increased and correlated with CD16-expression of gammadelta T cells. gammadelta T cells highly expressed CD107a after expansion and no further increased expression by 4G7SDIE and N19-C16 was measured. Cytotoxicity of purified expanded gammadelta T cells targeting CD19-expressing cells was assessed in both europium-TDA release and in an impedance-based label-free method (using the xCELLigence system) measuring gammadelta T cell lysis in real-time. Albeit in the 2 h end-point europium-TDA release assay no increased lysis was observed, in real-time xCELLigence assays both significant antibody-independent cytotoxicity and ADCC of gammadelta T cells were observed. The xCELLigence system outperformed the end-point europium-TDA release assay in sensitivity and allows drawing of conclusions to lysis kinetics of gammadelta T cells over prolonged periods of time periods. Combination of CD19 antibodies with primary as well as expanded gammadelta T cells exhibits a promising approach, which may enhance clinical outcome of patients with pediatric B-lineage ALL and requires clinical evaluation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25520723
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  • 2
    Abstract: Prognosis of primary refractory and relapsed pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is very poor. Relapse rates significantly correlate with persistent minimal residual disease (MRD). In MRD, favorable effector-target ratios prevail and thus this situation might be optimally suited for immunotherapy with antibodies recruiting immunological effector cells. We here report on the generation, preclinical characterization and first clinical application in B-lineage ALL of an Fc-optimized CD19 antibody. This third-generation antibody (4G7SDIE) mediated enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against leukemic blasts with effector cells from healthy volunteers and B-lineage ALL patients. The antibody was produced in a university-owned production unit and was applied on a compassionate use basis to 14 pediatric patients with refractory and relapsed B-lineage ALL at the stage of MRD. In 10/14 patients, MRD was reduced by 〉/= 1 log or below the patient-individual detection limit, and 5/14 patients have achieved ongoing complete molecular remission with a median leukemia-free survival of 428 days. Two additional patients died in complete molecular remission due to complications not related to antibody therapy. Besides profound in vivo B-cell depletion, side effects were negligible. A clinical phase 1/2 study to further assess the therapeutic activity of 4G7SDIE is in preparation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27380762
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