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  • 1
    Abstract: During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or combined with conventional treatments in clinical studies. Immunotherapies may be subdivided into "passive" and "active" based on their ability to engage the host immune system against cancer. Since the anticancer activity of most passive immunotherapeutics (including tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies) also relies on the host immune system, this classification does not properly reflect the complexity of the drug-host-tumor interaction. Alternatively, anticancer immunotherapeutics can be classified according to their antigen specificity. While some immunotherapies specifically target one (or a few) defined tumor-associated antigen(s), others operate in a relatively non-specific manner and boost natural or therapy-elicited anticancer immune responses of unknown and often broad specificity. Here, we propose a critical, integrated classification of anticancer immunotherapies and discuss the clinical relevance of these approaches.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25537519
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-09-29
    Description: Cancer cells accommodate multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations that initially activate intrinsic (cell-autonomous) and extrinsic (immune-mediated) oncosuppressive mechanisms. Only once these barriers to oncogenesis have been overcome can malignant growth proceed unrestrained. Tetraploidization can contribute to oncogenesis because hyperploid cells are genomically unstable. We report that hyperploid cancer cells become immunogenic because of a constitutive endoplasmic reticulum stress response resulting in the aberrant cell surface exposure of calreticulin. Hyperploid, calreticulin-exposing cancer cells readily proliferated in immunodeficient mice and conserved their increased DNA content. In contrast, hyperploid cells injected into immunocompetent mice generated tumors only after a delay, and such tumors exhibited reduced DNA content, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and calreticulin exposure. Our results unveil an immunosurveillance system that imposes immunoselection against hyperploidy in carcinogen- and oncogene-induced cancers.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Senovilla, Laura -- Vitale, Ilio -- Martins, Isabelle -- Tailler, Maximilien -- Pailleret, Claire -- Michaud, Mickael -- Galluzzi, Lorenzo -- Adjemian, Sandy -- Kepp, Oliver -- Niso-Santano, Mireia -- Shen, Shensi -- Marino, Guillermo -- Criollo, Alfredo -- Boileve, Alice -- Job, Bastien -- Ladoire, Sylvain -- Ghiringhelli, Francois -- Sistigu, Antonella -- Yamazaki, Takahiro -- Rello-Varona, Santiago -- Locher, Clara -- Poirier-Colame, Vichnou -- Talbot, Monique -- Valent, Alexander -- Berardinelli, Francesco -- Antoccia, Antonio -- Ciccosanti, Fabiola -- Fimia, Gian Maria -- Piacentini, Mauro -- Fueyo, Antonio -- Messina, Nicole L -- Li, Ming -- Chan, Christopher J -- Sigl, Verena -- Pourcher, Guillaume -- Ruckenstuhl, Christoph -- Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac -- Lazar, Vladimir -- Penninger, Josef M -- Madeo, Frank -- Lopez-Otin, Carlos -- Smyth, Mark J -- Zitvogel, Laurence -- Castedo, Maria -- Kroemer, Guido -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Sep 28;337(6102):1678-84.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉INSERM, U848, Villejuif, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calreticulin/immunology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Common Variable Immunodeficiency/genetics ; DNA, Neoplasm/analysis/genetics ; Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/*immunology ; Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism ; Humans ; Immunocompetence ; *Immunologic Surveillance ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Neoplasms/chemically induced/*genetics/*immunology ; Phosphorylation ; *Ploidies
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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