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  • 1
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Semimembranosus m. ; Lateral meniscus ; Anatomy ; MRI ; Oblique popliteal ligament
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Une étude morphologique et en IRM des terminaisons du tendon distal du m. semi-membraneux et des structures postérieures de la capsule du genou a été réalisée à partir de 42 genoux de cadavres. Un faisceau tendineux du m. semi-membraneux s'insérant sur la corne postérieure du ménisque latéral a été trouvée dans 43,2 % des genoux disséqués en plus des cinq faisceaux déjà connus : capsulaire, direct, antérieur et inférieur, ainsi que le lig. poplité oblique. Ce faisceau présentait trois types morphologiques : fin, large, rond. Quel que soit son type, sa traction vers l'arrière mobilisait le ménisque latéral. De ce fait, le m. semi-membraneux aurait également un rôle protecteur sur le ménisque latéral, identique à celui déjà décrit pour le ménisque médial lors de la flexion du genou. Lorsque le tendon du m. semi-membraneux présente un faisceau d'insertion sur la corne postérieure du ménisque latéral, il est difficile en IRM de différencier cette insertion d'une rupture du ménisque latéral et cela peut être une cause d'erreur diagnostique.
    Notes: Summary Forty-two cadaver knees were used for morphologic and MRI observations of the tendinous distal expansions of the semimembranosus m. and the posterior capsular structures of the knee. A tendinous branch of the semimembranosus m. inserting into the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus was found in 43.2% of the knees dissected, besides five already known insertional branches; capsular, direct, anterior and inferior, as well as the oblique popliteal ligament. The tendon had three morphologic types; thin, broad and round. All three types moved the lateral meniscus posteriorly when pulled on. Thus, the semimembranosus m. may also have a protective function for the lateral meniscus as well as the already well established function of protecting the medial meniscus in knee flexion. When a semimembranosus tendon attachment to the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus is present, its normal insertion is difficult to differentiate from a lateral meniscus tear in MRI and this may cause misdiagnosis.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Keywords HSP70 ; Human melanoma cells ; Ultraviolet B ; Apoptosis ; Caspase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The heat shock response is a highly conserved reaction common to all cells and organisms. It has been reported that hyperthermic treatment can induce the expression of the heat shock protein (HSP) and can protect cells from ultraviolet (UV) B radiation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of induced HSP70 on resistance to UV radiation. G361 amelanotic human melanoma cells were irradiated with increasing doses of UVB. UVB irradiation caused apoptotic cell death in these cells. Following transfection with MFG.hsp70.puro plasmid, the expression of HSP70 was determined. Compared to control vector-transfected cells, hsp70-transfected cells showed significantly elevated levels of HSP70 and were highly resistant to UVB irradiation. In order to investigate the effects of HSP70 on the apoptotic pathway, the changes in caspase-3 and PARP were analyzed. Following UVB irradiation, activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP were observed in control vector-transfected cells, and the changes in these molecules were inhibited in the hsp70-transfected cells. These results suggest that UVB-induced apoptosis of melanoma cells is accompanied by caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage, which can be prevented by an overexpression of HSP70.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Semimembranosus m. ; Lateral meniscus ; Anatomy ; MRI ; Oblique popliteal ligament
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Forty-two cadaver knees were used for morphologic and MRI observations of the tendinous distal expansions of the semimembranosus m. and the posterior capsular structures of the knee. A tendinous branch of the semimembranosus m. inserting into the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus was found in 43.2% of the knees dissected, besides five already known insertional branches; capsular, direct, anterior and inferior, as well as the oblique popliteal ligament. The tendon had three morphologic types; thin, broad and round. All three types moved the lateral meniscus posteriorly when pulled on. Thus, the semimembranosus m. may also have a protective function for the lateral meniscus as well as the already well established function of protecting the medial meniscus in knee flexion. When a semimembranosus tendon attachment to the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus is present, its normal insertion is difficult to differentiate from a lateral meniscus tear in MRI and this may cause misdiagnosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary High speed isovelocity shortening using a servo-controlled lever was performed on isolated whole frog sartorius muscles at long lengths to ensure substantial passive tension. The tension records of unstimulated control experiments were subtracted from the tension records of fully-tetanized experiments on the same muscles to yield the developed tension exerted by the contractile proteins alone. There are several main results: (1) the positive developed tension had the same relation with shortening speed observed by other researchers in single fibres with no passive tension present; (2) negative developed tension was always measured at velocities of shortening above V max′ where V max (typically 1.5 muscle-lengths s-1 at 2° C) is defined as the velocity of shortening observed to yield zero developed tension; (3) negative developed tension was roughly asymptotic to −0.05 T o′ where T o is the developed isometric tetanic tension for the muscle length at which the developed tension was measured during steady shortening; (4) negative developed tension diminished in magnitude at velocities of shortening above approximately 2.5 V max; (5) a 10° C increase in temperature from 2° C to 12° C had no significant effect on the shape of the normalized force-velocity curve (%T o versus %V max), but did increase V max by a factor of 2.6 in agreement with the results of previous studies measuring V max in the absence of passive tension; (6) addition of curare in the saline bath did not affect the results.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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