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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The development of odor emission rates from EU6 classified glass fiber bag filters was studied in four air-handling units (AHU), and emissions from the same kind of filters with EU3 classified polyester prefilters were studied in two units. The filters were loaded in six AHU in downtown Helsinki. The pressure drop was measured, and the odors of the filters were evaluated by a trained panel under laboratory conditions (T = 20°C, face velocity 1.0 m/s) every sixth week. The odor emissions of simultaneous atmospheric dust samples were also studied. The odor emissions of the filters rose during the first three months to a level where every third person would be dissatisfied. The emissions from coarse prefilters were similar to those from the more efficient filters without prefilters, and the emissions of the main filters were significantly lower if used with prefilters. This result indicates that the prefilters effectively protected the fine filters from odor-causing particles. The results of tests made with atmospheric samples agree with this result. Relative odor emissions were the highest in coarse fractions (〉 10.0 μm). The pressure drop increased with the particle mass collected on the ventilation filter, but it did not correlate well with the odor emission of the filter. Thus, pressure drop alone is not an adequate criterion for changing supply air filters when hygienic aspects are a concern.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of air humidification and temperature on thermal comfort in sedentary office work. A blinded twelve-period cross-over trial was carried out in two similar wings of an office building, contrasting 28–39% steam humidification with no humidification, corresponding to 12–28% relative humidity. The length of each period was one working week. The study population was 169 workers who judged their thermal sensations in a weekly questionnaire. The percentage of dissatisfied was lowest when the air temperature was 22 °C. At 22 °C an increase in relative humidity raised the mean thermal sensation only slightly. At 20 °C when the air was humidified there were fewer workers who judged their air temperature as being too low. On the other hand, at 24 °C humidification increased the percentage of workers who judged their air temperature to be too high. The percentage of dissatisfied increased rapidly when the air temperature was outside of its optimum value, 22 °C. The percentage of workers complaining about draft increased when the air temperature was lower than 22 °C. Thus we consider that the temperature range from 20 to 24 °C during wintertime may be too wide without individual temperature control from the point vzew of thermal comfort. We recommend that the air temperature should be kept between 21 and 23 °C if no individual control is available. The best solution would be individual temperature control permitting adjustment of the temperature at 22 ± 2 °C.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of symptoms and the perception of poor indoor air quality among the occupants of houses and apartments with different ventilation systems. The study population consisted of the 473 occupants of 242 dwellings in the Helsinki metropolitan area who responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 93.1%) after a two-week period of indoor air quality measurements. The symptoms of interest were those often related to poor indoor air quality including dryness or itching of the skin; dryness, irritation or itching of the eyes; nasal congestion (“blocked nose”) nasal dry-ness; nasal discharge (“runny nose”); sneezing; cough; breathlessness; headache or migraine; and lethargy, weakness or nausea. Perception of coldness; warm-ness; draught; dryness; stuffiness; and sufficiency of air exchange was also requested. The age-standardized period prevalences of the symptoms and complaints were systematically more common among the occupants of the apartments than those of the houses. The occupants of the houses with natural ventilation seemed to have more symptoms and complaints than those with balanced ventilation. However, in the apartments with balanced ventilation the occupants reported, in general, more symptoms and complaints than those with natural ventilation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of the study was to gather information about the actual ventilation and indoor air quality and to evaluate the differences between houses and apartments with different ventilation systems. A sample of 242 dwellings in the Helsinki metropolitan area was studied over periods of no weeks during the 1988-1989 heating season. The mean air-exchange rates had a high variation (average 0.52 l/h, range 0.07-1.55 l/h). The ASHRAE minimum value of 0.35 l/h was not achieved in 28% of the dwellings. The air-exchange rates were significantly her in the houses than in the apartments (averages 0.45/0.64 l/h, p 〈 0.001); in the natural ventilation systems they, were slightly her than in the mechanical systems. The average temperature in the bedrooms was approximately 22 °C (range 18–27 °C), slightly but significantly higher in the apartment than in the houses. The average dust depositions were higher in the balanced ventilation systems than in the other systems. The median radon concentration was 82 Bq/m3 (range 5-866 Bq/m3); the Finnish target value of 200 Bq/m3 was exceeded in 17% of the houses but in none of the apartment. The measurements indicate that the indoor air quality in Finnish dwellings is not always satisfactory with reference to human health and comfort.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The effects of mechanical ventilation on the sick building syndrome (SBS) were studied in an office building with 2150 employees, where the mechanical ventilation and indoor air quality were commonly blamed for causing symptoms typical of the SBS (nasal, eye, and mucous membrane symptoms, lethargy, skin symptoms and headache). The mechanical ventilation rates in the building were high (mean 26 l/s/person). To test the hypothesis that mechanical ventilation causes the SBS, a controlled experimental study was carried out by shutting off the ventilation in one part of the building and reducing the ventilation rate by 75% and 60% in two areas while leaving one part unaltered as a control. The experimental reduction of the ventilation rate did not alleviate the symptoms. On the contrary, the reduction of the ventilation rate caused a slight but statistically significant relative increase in symptoms (p 〈 0.05). In the cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data the SBS symptoms did not associate significantly with the ventilation rate (range 7–70 l/s/person). In the linear regression model, a positive correlation was found between temperatures above 22°C and the occurrence of symptoms (p 〈 0.05). Subjects exposed to environmental tobacco smoke had more symptoms than those not exposed (p 〈 0.01). Women reported more symptoms than men (p 〈 0.001). In addition, any prior history of allergic diseases (p 〈 0.001) and a negative attitude towards the social atmosphere at work (p 〈 0.001) were significant determinants of the SBS.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Indoor air 8 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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