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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Over a 3.5 year period, illness and predation operated in a non-random manner on free-ranging vervet monkeys in Amboseli National Park. As a result, there was no correlation among adult females between dominance rank and reproductive success. Deaths due to illness were concentrated among low-ranking individuals, and appeared to occur as a result of restricted access to food and water during the dry season. In contrast, deaths due to predation were concentrated among high-ranking individuals. The precise cause of such increased vulnerability could not be determined. High-ranking females alarm-called at higher frequencies than low-ranking females, and were also more aggressive than low-ranking females during intergroup encounters. In contrast, low-ranking females were more likely to initiate friendly interactions with the members of other groups. The non-random distribution of causes of mortality suggests that individuals living in the same social group may confront different selective pressures. Perhaps as a result, individuals appear to respond differently to similar social and environmental variables.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Leaf rust ; Adult plant resistance ; Sequence-tagged-site ; Triticum speltoides ; Wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The objective of this work was to develop a marker for the adult plant leaf rust resistance gene Lr35. The Lr35 gene was originally introgressed into chromosome 2B from Triticum speltoides, a diploid relative of wheat. A segregating population of 96 F 2 plants derived from a cross between the resistant line ThatcherLr35 and the susceptible variety Frisal was analysed. Out of 80 RFLP probes previously mapped on wheat chromosome 2B, 51 detected a polymorphism between the parents of the cross. Three of them were completely linked with the resistance gene Lr35. The co-segregating probe BCD260 was converted into a PCR-based sequence-tagged-site (STS) marker. A set of 48 different breeding lines derived from several European breeding programs was tested with the STS marker. None of these lines has a donor for Lr35 in its pedigree and all of them reacted negatively with the STS marker. As no leaf rust races virulent on Lr35 have been found in different areas of the world, the STS marker for the Lr35 resistance gene is of great value to support the introgression of this gene in combination with other leaf rust (Lr) genes into breeding material by marker-assisted selection.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Triticum aestivum ; QTL ; Leaf rust ; Durable resistance ; Leaf-tip necrosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Quantitative resistance that delays the epidemic development of leaf rust in wheat is an important source for durable resistance breeding. The Swiss winter wheat variety ’Forno’ shows a high level of quantitative resistance against leaf rust. This resistance has been effective for more than 10 years and can therefore be considered to be durable. In order to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for durable leaf rust resistance we analysed 204 F5 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross between the winter wheat ’Forno’ and the winter spelt ’Oberkulmer’ for their level of leaf rust resistance (LR) and leaf tip necrosis (LTN) in four different environments. Both traits showed a continuous distribution and were significantly correlated (r=−0.5). Across environments we detected 8 QTL for leaf rust resistance (6 inherited from ’Forno’) and 10 QTL for the quantitative expression of LTN (6 inherited from ’Forno’). Of the 6 QTL responsible for the durable leaf rust resistance of ’Forno’, 1 major QTL coincided with a thaumatin locus on 7BL explaining 35% of the phenotypic variance. Four QTL for LR coincided with QTL for LTN. At these loci the alleles of ’Forno’ increased the level of resistance as well as the extent of LTN, indicating pleiotropy.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Primate groups are often larger than might be predicted from a consideration of within-group competition alone. Wrangham (1980) has hypothesized that females live in extended kin groups in order to defend food resources against other groups. In contrast, others have argued that predation pressure, rather than intergroup competition, favors sociality. Data gathered over 10 years on a population of free-ranging vervet monkeys provide more support for the food defense hypothesis than for the predation hypothesis, and suggest than female reproductive success can be influenced strongly by intergroup competition. 1. Of the three groups under intensive study, the smallest experienced the least predation, arguing against the hypothesis that large groups have evolved as a defense against predation. 2. At least three different measures indicated that larger groups experienced slightly greater infant and juvenile female survival than did smaller groups. 3. Larger groups also had larger and better quality ranges than smaller groups. Large groups were more likely to make incursions into the ranges of smaller groups than vice versa, and to expand their ranges at the expense of smaller groups. Perhaps as a result, females in small groups were more aggressive during intergroup encounters than were females in large groups. 4. Within groups, rank reversals were influenced by the presence of female kin, and individuals with female kin were able to rise in rank over those without kin. There was no evidence that high-ranking females attempted to suppress the recruitment of daughters by low-ranking females, however, perhaps because groups with many females had a competitive advantage over groups with fewer females. 5. Data from a small number of group fusions support the hypothesis that small groups benefit from the recruitment of additional females, particularly in populations in which the average group size is small and mortality is high.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Animal Behaviour 40 (1990), S. 742-753 
    ISSN: 0003-3472
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Animal Behaviour 40 (1990), S. 754-764 
    ISSN: 0003-3472
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Animal Behaviour 40 (1990), S. 742-753 
    ISSN: 0003-3472
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Animal Behaviour 40 (1990), S. 754-764 
    ISSN: 0003-3472
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 269 (1977), S. 404-406 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We studied the intergroup encounters of a group of southern African baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) consisting of two adult males, eight adult females, and between 14 and 20 immatures. During 15 months' observation, this group came to within 500m of another group on 174 occasions, with such ...
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