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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: ataxia telangiectasia ; ATM ; breast cancer ; mutation screening
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Based upon the results of several epidemiologic studies, it has been suggested that women who are carriers for a mutation in the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) gene are susceptible for the development of breast cancer. Therefore, 37 consecutive breast cancer patients were screened for the presence of a germline ATM mutation using a non-isotopic RNase cleavage-based assay (NIRCA). This paper reports the first use of NIRCA for detection of ATM mutations in breast cancer patients. Using this assay, no ATM mutations were found in our patient population. This result is similar to the findings of other studies that have employed approaches complementary to NIRCA.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have previously reported that a history of pregnancy is independently associated with axillary node involvement in breast cancer patients. We have now studied additional women with breast cancer and have used our data and the logistic model to produce nomograms for determining the risk of axillary node involvement, based on tumor size, age, and number of pregnancies. There was an increase in the incidence of axillary node involvement in women with a history of pregnancy. To exclude the confounding effect that tumor size or age might have on node involvement, logistic regression was performed. Pregnancy, tumor size, and age were the three independent variables. History of pregnancy had a significant effect on node involvement (P=0.036) that was independent of tumor size and age. Nomograms were constructed from these data. Surgeons do not perform an axillary dissection in every breast cancer patient. If the axilla is clinically negative and the tumor small, the surgeon, medical oncologist, and radiation oncologist may decide that a dissection need not be done. The nomograms in this article may allow for a more methodical choice of patients for axillary dissection. Moreover, a radiation oncologist might use the nomograms to help decide whether to irradiate an undissected axilla.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1530-0358
    Keywords: Computed tomography ; Staging ; Rectal carcinoma ; Rectal cancer ; Preoperative
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract From June 1983 to January 1986, 91 patients with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the rectum had computed tomographic scans of the pelvis performed before treatment as part of a “sandwich” radiotherapy-surgery regimen. Two experienced diagnostic radiologists performed locoregional staging of all scans according to the University of California at San Francisco criteria; one of these radiologists repeated this staging at a later time to test the reproducibility of a single observer. Staging was performed without the use of any other radiographic studies or of any clinical information except the patients' age, sex, and the diagnosis of rectal carcinoma, to test the value of computed tomographic scans alone for staging. Agreement between the two stagings performed by the first observer was 51 percent, and interobserver agreement was only 37 percent. Agreement with Dukes' staging was only 33 percent. Therefore, preoperative pelvic computed tomographic scanning of primary rectal adenocarcinoma should not be relied upon for staging or for the selection of patients for treatment options.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 87 (1976), S. 377-387 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cellular growth has been found to be directly related to the amount of sodium pumping activity in mouse lymphoblasts (L5178-Y) cultured in varying concentrations of the cardiac glycoside, ouabain. No short-term adaptation (within one generation) occurred; i.e., neither growth rate nor (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity increased in cells cultured for 1-2 days in ouabain.Growth inhibition commenced after two hours, occurring concomitantly with decreased 3H-leucine incorporation into protein. The time course of this inhibition of protein synthesis, measured by leucine incorporation was similar to, but slightly slower than the time course of the dissipation of the sodium gradient. On the other hand, 3H-thymidine incorporation is unaffected by ouabain treatment over the same period. The uptake of 3H-alanine, a neutral amino acid thought to be transported via a Na+-dependent carrier, was depressed concurrently with the sodium gradient dissipation. It is suggested, therefore, that ouabain inhibition of cellular growth results primarily from the dissipation of the sodium gradient leading to decreased Na+-dependent transport of amino acids (e.g., alanine) and, therefore, decreased protein synthesis, as observed by leucine incorporation.A sensitive and rapid method for determining ouabain inhibition of cell volume regulation is also described, which may prove potentially useful for assaying Na pump activity.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 78 (1971), S. 243-250 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cellular electrophoretic mobility, and therefore, surface charge/ unit area, was found to be constant throughout the cell cycle of synchronized L5178-Y mouse lymphoblasts, remaining at - 1.21 μ sec-1 V-1 cm. Measured cell volumes of these synchronized cells increased linearly over the cell cycle and at mitosis each cell divided into two cells, each cell having half of the parent volume. An hypothesis is presented which explains the presence of a mobility peak at mitosis in cells which normally are grown attaching to a glass surface on the basis of differential morphological changes during mitosis; cells such as the L5178-Ys, which do not attach to glass normally, do not undergo such morphological changes at mitosis and, therefore, would not demonstrate a mobility peak at that time.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A Coulter-orifice pulse-height analyzer system was used to measure volume spectra of mammalian cells in suspension at different times after the addition of an equal volume of water. In appropriate hypotonic medium, cultured mammalian cells rapidly increase in volume and then shrink, more slowly, approaching their initial volumes within 20 to 30 minutes at 37.5°C. The shrinking phase was found to be reversibly inhibited by ouabain and inhibited in both K+-free and Na+-free solutions; neither choline+ nor Li+ could substitute for extracellular Na+ in supporting the shrinking phenomenon but Rb+ and Cs+ were fairly good substitutes for K+.Under conditions similar to those with which the shrinking phenomenon was observed with cultured cells, it was not found with either human or mouse red blood cells.Two methods were used to determine intracellular Na+ and K+ content in osmotically shocked cells and in unshocked controls. An isotope equilibration method was employed with L5178-Y mouse lymphoblasts and a chemical determination by flame photometry was used with Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The K+ content was significantly reduced and the Na+ content was unchanged or somewhat increased in cells which had returned to their original volumes in hypotonic medium. The K+ content was even more reduced but the Na+ content was greatly increased in cells which were osmotically shocked in the presence of ouabain.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Previous studies with mammalian cultured cells have shown that volume regulation in hypotonic medium requires active Na transport. In the present study, determinations of intracellular Na and K content were made in cultured mouse lymphoblasts during the process of swelling and subsequent shrinking (volume regulation) in hypotonic medium. Na and K content were measured in cells in which the shrinking phase was inhibited by the cardiac glycoside, ouabain. In osmotically-shocked cells, an initial permeability increase to K, and not Na, was observed, which allowed K to diffuse out rapidly, down its gradient. Na, meanwhile, rapidly flowed inward with water entry during the swelling process, and was later lost with the same kinetics as the cell shrinkage. This loss of Na was prevented in the presence of ouabain. The results imply that volume regulation is achieved by pumping Na gained during swelling out of the cells, while any K taken up by the pump is rapidly lost through a more permeable membrane. The loss of osmotically active Na, presumably with accompanying anions, allows water to passively diffuse down its osmotic gradient, reducing cell volume subsequent to the initial passive swelling, during which K was rapidly lost.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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