Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
1. In the present study, using the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic glucose clamp technique, we investigated the effects of hyperinsulinaemia on sodium-water metabolism and the pressor system in obesity, both of which have been reported to be closely associated with insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinaemia.2. Sixteen obese young subjects and 24 non-obese young subjects who were all normotensives, participated in this study. The 2h euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic glucose clamp was performed in a fasting state. The mean glucose infusion rate needed to maintain a fasting blood sugar level (FBS) during the last 30 min of the clamp was used as an indicator of insulin sensitivity (M-value). Before and after the clamp, the following parameters were measured: creatinine clearance (Ccr); urinary excretion of sodium (UNaV); fractional excretion of sodium (FENa); plasma renin activity (PRA); plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and plasma noradrenaline concentration (PNA).3. The M-value was significantly lower in obese subjects compared with non-obese subjects, although FBS and fasting immunoreactive insulin levels were similar in both groups. UNaV and FENa fell only in obese subjects during the clamp, while Ccr showed no significant change in either group. PNA and PRA increased significantly and PAC tended to increase in both groups.4. These results suggest that obese subjects have insulin resistance with respect to glucose metabolism, but that urinary sodium excretion and the pressor system remain insulin-sensitive; the sensitivity of the sodium retaining action to hyperinsulinaemia was actually higher in obese subjects than in non-obese subjects. Therefore, if compensatory endogenous hyperinsulinaemia was raised by insulin resistance, these two factors may lead to chronic sodium retention and pressor system stimulation and, in turn, to hypertension in obesity.
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