AIP Digital Archive
Oxygen diffusion/incorporation behaviors of TiN/Ti/Si structures after thermal annealing in nitrogen ambients have been studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy measurements. At the interface between Ti and TiN, titanium dioxides, thermodynamically most stable, are formed as a consequence of grain boundary diffusion, while inside TiN layer the contents of TiO and Ti2O3 compounds increases as the annealing temperature increases. At the interface between Ti and Si, titanium silicide formation is observed in the samples annealed above 450 °C consuming a part of pure Ti layer. One thing to note is that a severe blistering is observed in a sample annealed at 600 °C, probably caused by the difference of thermal expansion coefficients between TiSi2 and TiO2.
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