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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Nous avons entrepris des recherches sur la relation entre l'ostéoporose de la colonne vertébrale et l'arthrose du genou au moyen de l'absorptiométrie à rayons X et de la radiographie standar sur 82 femmes sélectionnées au hasard (l'âge moyen est de 77 ans). La densité minérale de l'os (BMD=»Bone Mineral Density«) de la colonne lombaire a été évaluée par l'absorptiométrie. Nous avons évalué les informations provenant des radiographies des genoux pour classer l'arthrose en 2 groupes: »Normal« et »Evolue«. La BMD du groupe type »Evolue« était bien supérieure à celle du groupe type »Normal« (p〈0.01).
    Notes: Summary We investigated the relation between osteoporosis of the spine and osteoarthritis of the knee using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine to measure bone mineral density and radiographs of the knee in 82 randomly selected females (mean age 77.5 years). Radiographs of the knee were divided into a normal and severe group. The bone mineral density of the severe group was significantly more than that of the normal group.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words:Alendronate – Alfacalcidol – Bone mineral density – Double-masked comparative study – Osteoporosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of alendronate, a double-masked, active (alfacalcidol) controlled comparative study for 48 weeks was carried out in a total of 210 Japanese patients with osteoporosis. The doses of alendronate and alfacalcidol were 5 mg/day and 1 μg/day, respectively. The lumbar bone mineral density (LBMD) values observed at 12, 24, 36 and 48 weeks after the initiation of alendronate treatment were 3.53 ± 0.53%, 5.37 ± 0.62%, 5.87 ± 0.74% and 6.21 ± 0.59% (mean ± SE), respectively, higher than the baseline value. Corresponding values in the alfacalcidol group were 1.50 ± 0.43%, 0.69 ± 0.63%, 1.12 ± 0.60% and 1.36 ± 0.63%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two groups at each time point (p〈0.05 or p〈0.001). The bone turnover markers were depressed during treatment in the alendronate group: −32.2% for alkaline phosphatase, −53.7% for N-terminal osteocalcin and −45.0% for urinary deoxypyridinoline compared with the corresponding baseline values. On the contrary, no notable changes in these parameters were observed in the alfacalcidol group. Treatment with alendronate caused a transient decrease in serum calcium concentrations associated with an increase in the serum level of intact parathyroid hormone. In contrast, treatment with alfacalcidol resulted in a tendency of these parameters to change in the opposite direction. No difference in fracture incidence between the two groups was observed. The overall safety of alendronate was comparable to that of alfacalcidol. In conclusion, although it was a relatively short-term study of 48 weeks, the results of the present study indicate that alendronate at the daily dose of 5 mg was effective in increasing LBMD and that no serious drug-related adverse events were observed in the alendronate-treated patients. Alendronate is more efficacious than alfacalcidol in increasing bone mineral density, although the mechanisms of the actions of the two drugs are apparently different.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Osteoporosis international 3 (1993), S. 153-156 
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Osteoporosis international 3 (1993), S. 176-180 
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Conclusions The recent developments in both instrumentation and software have led to the widespread use of DXA in osteoporosis. Although DXA has advantages over other techniques, it is important to give the pitfalls and limitations of DXA careful consideration to ensure its effective clinical application.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Osteoporosis ; 1α-Hydroxyvitamin D3 ; Bone mineral density ; Fracture rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The effects of 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 [1α(OH)D3] on bone mineral density, fracture incidence, and bone metabolism were evaluated by a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eighty postmenopausal osteoporotic Japanese women (71.9±7.3 years, mean±SD) were randomly assigned to 1 μg of 1α(OH)D3 daily or inactive placebo for 1 year. All patients were given supplemental calcium (300 mg of elemental calcium daily). Lumbar (L2–L4) bone mineral density (BMD) determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry increased 0.65% with 1α(OH)D3 treatment and decreased 1.14% with placebo (P=0.037). BMD in both the femoral neck and Ward's triangle did not yield any significant differences between the two groups, whereas trochanter BMD in the 1α(OH)D3-treated group increased 4.20% and decreased 2.37% with placebo (P=0.055). X-ray analysis demonstrated that new vertebral fractures occurred in two patients with 1α(OH)D3 and in seven patients with placebo. The vertebral fracture rate in the treated group was significantly less (75/1000 patient years) than in the control group (277/1000 patient years; P=0.029). Hypercalcemia (12.1 mg/100 ml) occurred in one patient receiving 1α(OH)D3; however, the serum calcium level in this patient promptly decreased to the reference range after cessation of the treatment. There were no significant changes in serum creatinine level in either group. A significant increase in urinary excretion of calcium was found but there was no significant change in urinary excretion of hydroxyproline in the treated group. The serum level of bone-derived alkaline phosphatase activity significantly decreased by−26±26 (mU/ml) after the treatment (P=0.003). These results indicate that 1α(OH)D3 treatment is effective for maintaining trabecular bone mass and prevents further vertebral fractures without any serious adverse effects in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key Words; transforming growth factor β, osteoclast, bone resorption lacunae, activation of latent TGF-β
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: SUMMARY Fetal mouse calvarias were cultured in a medium containing fetal calf serum, 1, 25 (OH)2D3 and parathyroid hormone in 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C for 5 days. The calvarias were then fixed in a buffered paraformaldehyde solution and the periostea were removed, A polyclonal antibody against transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and a second antibody labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate were used to detect TGF-β. As a result, a specific staining was observed only in the shielding zone covered by osteoclasts in the bone resorption lacunae and in the extracellular matrix adjacent to the osteoclasts. These findings suggested the local delivery and possible activation of TGF-β by osteoclasts in tissue.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Osteoporosis — Longitudinal study — Bone mineral density — Menopause.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. To determine the rates of change in bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine in healthy Japanese women, longitudinal measurements of spinal BMD using dual X-ray absorptiometry were collected from 984 women over 17 years of age (mean age 51.6) at eight medical research centers. They were followed up for 20.9 months on average without any treatment influencing bone and calcium metabolism. Measurements of BMD obtained by two different scanners were converted into standardized BMD (sBMD) values. The multiple linear regression model predicts that spinal sBMD increases up to about 23 years of age: the estimated average rates of increases were 0.13%/year for women aged 20 years. After the age of 23, the sBMD began decreasing: the rates of loss increased by 0.045%/year for each year increase in age among premenopausal women. In perimenopausal women, the rate of loss was 2.1%/year. In postnatural menopausal women, the rates of loss decreased exponentially with increasing years since menopause. The rates of loss increased by 0.04%/year for 1 kg decrease in body weight or by 0.1%/year for 1 kg/m2 decrease in body mass index. No significant differences in changes in sBMD were found between scanners and between centers after multiple adjustment. We conclude that the rates of change in spinal sBMD are associated with age in premenopausal women, and with years since menopause and weight or BMI in postmenopausal women. Caution is needed, however, when using data from different densitometers to evaluate rates in bone loss in multicenter trials.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Insulin-like growth factor I gene — Bone mineral density — Osteoporosis — Microsatellite polymorphism — Genetics.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. The polymorphism of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene was examined in Japanese postmenopausal women to analyze the genetic background for osteoporosis. In this study, the dinucleotide (cytosine-adenine; CA) repeat sequence lying upstream of the transcription initiation site of this gene was examined. We named the most frequent allele including (CA) 19 as J allele. There were 6 alleles (J-4 containing 17 CA repeats: (CA)17, [J-2 (CA)18, J (CA)19, J + 2 (CA)20, J + 4 (CA)21, J + 6 (CA)22]) in the Japanese population. The genotype distribution was different from that of Caucasians. There was no different in bone mineral density (BMD) between the group with one or two alleles of each genotype and that without that genotype. When we separate the subjects into three groups having two alleles, one allele, and no alleles, the three subjects who possess the allele ′J-2′ in both strands had low BMD (Z score of L2-4; −1.24 ± 0.56, total body; −0.943 ± 0.59, mean ± SE). On the other hand, sequence of IGF-I gene in this study was different from reported sequence of IGF-I gene; that was 2 base pair (bp) deletion following 3′end of CArepeat (−645adenine/−646guanine). The present study showed that there was no association between the microsatellite polymorphism of IGF-I gene and BMD in Japanese postmenopausal women, but some possibility remains that the microsatellite polymorphism of IGF-I gene is useful to detect a kind of particular osteoporosis.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Vitamin K ; Mineralization ; Osteocalcin ; Osteoblast ; 1,25(OH)2D3
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The effect of vitamin K on mineralization by human periosteal osteoblasts was investigated in the absence and presence of 1α,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). Vitamin K1 and K2, but not vitamin K3, at 2.5 μM enhanced in vitro mineralization when cells were cultured with vitamin K for 20 days after reaching confluence in vitro. Vitamin K2 (2-methyl-3-all-trans-tetraphenyl-1,4-naphthoquinone: menatetrenone) was the most potent of these vitamin K analogs; it slightly inhibited alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Human osteoblasts were mineralized and showed the enhanced ALP activity on treatment with 10-9 M of 1,25(OH)2D3 for 20 or 25 days after confluence. Vitamin K2 promoted the 1,25(OH)2D3-induced mineralization, but slightly inhibited the 1,25(OH)2D3-induced ALP activity. Moreover, vitamin K2 enhanced the 1,25(OH)2D3-induced osteocalcin accumulation in the cells and the extracellular matrix (cell layer), but inhibited the osteocalcin content in the medium produced by the 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment. However, vitamin K2 alone did not induce osteocalcin production in the human osteoblasts. On Northern blot analysis, osteocalcin mRNA expression on 1,25(OH)2D3-treated cells was enhanced by vitamin K2 treatment, but vitamin K2 alone did not induce osteocalcin mRNA expression. Warfarin blocked both the 1,25(OH)2D3-induced osteocalcin production and the accumulation in the cell layer, and also blocked the 1,25(OH)2D3 plus vitamin K2-induced osteocalcin production and the accumulation in the cell layer. The 1,25(OH)2D3-induced mineralization promoted by vitamin K2 was probably due to the enhanced accumulation of osteocalcin induced by vitamin K2 in the cell layer. However, we concluded that the mineralization induced by vitamin K2 alone was due to the accumulation of osteocalcin in bovine serum on the cell layer, since osteocalcin extracted from the cell layer was not identified by specific antiserum against human osteocalcin, which does not cross-react with bovine osteocalcin. These results suggest that the mechanism underlying the mineralization induced by vitamin K2 in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 was different from that of vitamin K2 alone, and that osteocalcin plays an important role in mineralization by osteoblasts in vitro.
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