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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A serological survey using alloantisera specific for the H-2 class I antigens in Japanese wild mice,Mus musculus molossinus, revealed a high frequency of the H-2Kf antigen. This antigen has also been found in European wild mice,M. m. domesticus andM. m. musculus. In this survey, the H-2Kf antigen was characterized through the use of ten newly isolated monoclonal antibodies raised against cells of a Japanese wild mouse, and by Southern blot analysis using anH-2K locus-specific probe which hybridizes with the 3′ end of the gene. The serologically identified H-2Kf antigens revealed several minor variations in reactivities to the monoclonal antibodies. However, all the antigens examined could be clearly separated into two types with respect to the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern. The first type, found together with a single, characteristic RFLP pattern, was always associated with the presence of reactivity to one particular monoclonal antibody, MS54. The second type, found to represent different RFLP patterns, is associated with the absence of reactivity to MS54. This concordance between the presence of an antigenic determinant and a particular RFLP was observed not only withinMus musculus subspecies but also in a different species:M. spretus, carrying the same antigenic determinant, gave an identical RFLP to that of the other MS54-positiveMus musculus subspecies. The data suggest that the antigenic determinant specific for MS54 is an ancient polymorphic structure which has survived the long period of diversification ofMus species (approximately 2–3 million years) without alteration, and is associated with a stable DNA structure at the 3′ end of theH-2K gene.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The recombination frequency between the H-2K and H-2D marker loci in male mice was measured using heterozygotes that carry the H-2 wm7 haplotype derived from the Japanese wild mouse and common H-2 haplotypes derived from inbred mice. Previous mating experiments in which backcross progeny of heterozygous females were screened demonstrated that the H-2 2m7 displays marked enhancement of recombination within the H-2 complex. In contrast to recombination in female mice, no enhancement of recombination was observed during male meiosis in the present study. Thus, it appeared that enhancement of recombination is specific to female mice. A genealogical study of recombination indicated that the postmeiotic stage is not involved in the generation of sexual preference of enhancement of recombination, suggesting that the preference is meiotic-drive and that a female-specific mechanism is involved in meiotic recombination mediated by the H-2 wm7 haplotype.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Keywords: Key words Membrane cofactor protein ; Testis ; Chromosome 1 ; Complement ; Alternative splicing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Human membrane cofactor protein (MCP, CD46) is widely distributed and is one of the plasma membrane complement inhibitors. We isolated cDNA clones encoding genetic homologues of human MCP from a rat testis cDNA library. Northern blot analysis indicated that rat MCP is preferentially expressed in testis, similar to what is found with guinea pig MCP. We identified several different cDNAs, which were presumably generated by alternative splicing from a single-copy gene. The most prevalent isoform corresponded to the Ser/Thr/Pro-rich C type of human MCP. Mouse MCP cDNA was cloned by polymerase chain reaction based on the nucleotide sequence of rat MCP. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 77.8% identity to rat MCP. Mouse MCP was also preferentially expressed in testis. Unique expression in testis in rat and mouse as well as guinea pig suggests that MCPs in these species not only act as complement regulatory proteins but may also have more specialized functions in fertilization or reproduction. Genetic mapping by linkage analysis indicated that the mouse Mcp gene is located on distal chromosome 1, closely linked to the complement receptor 2 (Cr2) gene.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have already developed nine B10.MOL congenic strains carrying H-2 haplotypes derived from Japanese wild mice, Mus musculus molossinus, with the C57BL/10 genetic background. To obtain monoclonal antibodies against the H-2 antigen of the Japanese wild mouse, we carried out cell fusion using spleen cells from the animal immunized with one of the B10.MOL strains, B10.MOL-SGR (H-2 wm7). As a result, 19 hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies were produced. Analysis with the intro-H-2 recombinants derived from B10.MOL-SGR indicated that 8 of them reacted with the class I and II with the class II molecule. The class I antibodies were tested for their cross -reactivities on wild mice and on the panels of standard inbred and B10.MOL strains. Most of the antibodies reacted with both the Japanese wild mice and the other subspecies, including standard inbred, while two antibodies highly specific for the donor H-2K region reacted with only three wild-derived mice, two M. m. molossinus from Anj o and Shizuoka, Japan, and one M. m. domesticus from Pigeon, Canada. In addition, all of the other four antibodies reactive with the K antigen of B10.MOL-SGR also reacted with the same three wild mice. The wild mice belonging to different subspecies might share very similar H-2K antigenic determinants in spite of their genetic and geographical remoteness.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Southern blots of genomic DNA from 23 strains of laboratory mice and 19 individual wild mice were examined for restriction fragment length polymorphisms in their loci encoding the T-cell receptors (Tcr): the constant regions of the α, β, and γ chains (C α,C β, andC γ) and a variable region family of the β chain (V β8). Only a few polymorphisms were observed for each locus in the laboratory mice after using three restriction enzymes,Bam HI,Eco RI, andHind III. All the laboratory mice examined fall into one of two types for theC α,C β andV β8 loci and one of three types for theC γ. These types are found in some of the wild mice studied, indicating that they were already present in the founder mice of laboratory mouse strains. In contrast, theTcr genes are highly polymorphic among wild mice. Analysis of the polymorphisms in these loci suggests that laboratory mice have inherited their genes not only fromMus musculus domesticus, but also from other subspecies, and much more than previously believed from Asian subspecies.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thewm7 haplotype of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), derived from the Japanese wild mouseMus musculus molossinus, enhances recombination specific to female meiosis in theK/A β interval of the MHC. We have mapped crossover points of fifteen independent recombinants from genetic crosses of thewm7 and laboratory haplotypes. Most of them were confined to a short segment of approximately 1 kilobase (kb) of DNA between theA β3 andA β2 genes, indicating the presence of a female-specific recombinational hotspot. Its location overlaps with a sex-independent hotspot previously identified in theMus musculus castaneus CAS3 haplotype. We have cloned and sequenced DNA fragments surrounding the hotspot from thewm7 haplotype and the corresponding regions from the hotspot-negative B10.A and C57BL/10 strains. There is no significant difference between the sequences of these three strains, or between these and the published sequences of the CAS3 and C57BL/6 strains. However, a comparison of this Aβ3/Aβ2 hotspot with a previously characterized hotspot in theEβ gene revealed that they have a very similar molecular organization. Each hotspot consists of two elements, the consensus sequence of the mouse middle repetitive MT family and the tetrameric repeated sequences, which are separated by 1 kb of DNA.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Many aspects of mouse behavior have been studied by using only a relatively small sample of available laboratory strains. These laboratory mice were derived from the so-called ``fancy mouse'' and in most cases underwent extensive domestication before inbreeding. Thus, the behavioral repertoire of the laboratory mouse may be very different from that exhibited by stocks that have not been deliberately domesticated. Another inherent problem in analyzing mouse behavior is that genetic diversity is limited among currently available strains. In this respect, the use of strains that are derived from a variety of wild mice should provide a means to identifying novel behavioral phenotypes. We have investigated several behavioral phenotypes, using females of a number of mouse strains derived from wild mice of different subspecies, BFM/2, NJL, BLG2, HMI, CAST/Ei, KJR, SWN and MSM; a strain derived from fancy mice, JF1; and two laboratory strains, C57BL/6 and DBA/1. In this report, tests for locomotor activity, light-dark transitions, passive and active avoidance, and nociception were conducted. The results show great diversity of behavioral patterns between strains in contrast to less within-strain variability. We also found that two strains, KJR and SWN, both have good learning ability, whereas BLG2 mice exhibit impairment in both passive and active avoidance learning.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. A mouse mutation, rim2, is one of a series of spontaneous mutations that arose from the intra-MHC recombinants between Japanese wild mouse-derived wm7 and laboratory MHC haplotypes. This mutation is single recessive and characterized by diluted coat color and hypo-pigmentation of the eyes. We mapped the rim2 gene close to an old coat color mutation, pearl (pe), on Chromosome (Chr) 13 by the high-density linkage analysis. The pearl mutant is known to have abnormalities similar to Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), a human hemorrhagic disorder, characterized by albinism and storage pool deficiency (SPD) of dense granules in platelets. A mating cross of C57BL10/Slc-rim2/rim2 and C57BL/6J-pe/pe showed no complementation of coat color. Additionally, characteristics similar to SPD were also observed in rim2. Thus, rim2 appeared to be a new allele of the pe locus and serves as a mouse model for human HPS. We have made a YAC contig covering the rim2/pe locus toward positional cloning of the causative gene.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Haplotypes of the beta-globin gene complex (Hbb) in laboratory mice have been defined as d, p, and s. We previously found a new haplotype w1 in wild mice collected from northwestern China. This study analyzed the nucleotide sequences of b1 and b2-globin gene cDNAs of both the p and w1 haplotypes, in comparison with those of the d haplotype. In Hbb-b1 cDNA, six base substitutions were found between the d and w1 haplotypes and also between p and w1, but none existed between d and p. In Hbb-b2 cDNA, three base substitutions were found between the d and w1 haplotypes and also between d and p, but none between p and w1. This result indicated that the Hbb gene complex of the p haplotype carries b1 d and b2 w1 genes and is probably a recombinant between d and w1 haplotypes. The hemoglobin containing the W1 phenotype showed oxygen-binding properties identical with those of the hemoglobins containing D and P phenotypes.
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