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  • 1
    Keywords: ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; MARKERS ; C-REACTIVE PROTEIN ; nutrition ; RECTAL-CANCER ; INTERLEUKIN-4 ; GLUCOSE-METABOLISM ; ATHEROSCLEROSIS MAASTRICHT CODAM ; LOW-GRADE INFLAMMATION
    Abstract: Chronic inflammation is an important factor in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, evidence on the effect of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory foods and nutrients is scarce. Moreover, there are few studies focusing on diet-gene interactions on inflammation and colorectal cancer (CRC). This study was designed to investigate the association between the novel dietary inflammatory index (DII) and CRC and its potential interaction with polymorphisms in inflammatory genes. Data from the Bellvitge Colorectal Cancer Study, a case-control study (424 cases with incident colorectal cancer and 401 hospital-based controls), were used. The DII score for each participant was obtained by multiplying intakes of dietary components from a validated dietary history questionnaire by literature-based dietary inflammatory weights that reflected the inflammatory potential of components. Data from four important single nucleotide polymorphisms located in genes thought to be important in inflammation-associated CRC: i.e., interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG) were analyzed. A direct association was observed between DII score and CRC risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1 1.65, 95 % CI 1.05-2.60, and P trend 0.011). A stronger association was found with colon cancer risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1 2.24, 95 % CI 1.33-3.77, and P trend 0.002) than rectal cancer risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1 1.12, 95 % CI 0.61-2.06, and P trend 0.37). DII score was inversely correlated with SNP rs2243250 in IL-4 among controls, and an interaction was observed with CRC risk. Neither correlation nor interaction was detected for other inflammatory genes. Overall, high-DII diets are associated with increased risk of CRC, particularly for colon cancer, suggesting that dietary-mediated inflammation plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25488145
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  • 2
    Keywords: COHORT ; INDEX ; OBESITY ; C-REACTIVE PROTEIN ; nutrition ; ADULTS ; HEALTH CONDITIONS
    Abstract: Unhealthy dietary habits can increase the risk for serious medical conditions, such as cancer, yet the association between diet and breast cancer remains unclear. We investigated whether individual diets based on their inflammatory potential are associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk by employing an energy-adjusted dietary inflammation index. In a German population-based case-control study, 2887 postmenopausal breast cancer patients (aged 50-74 years, first diagnosed between 2002 and 2005) and 5512 healthy age-matched controls provided information on dietary habits for the year prior to diagnosis (cases) or recruitment (controls) using a 176-items food frequency questionnaire. Associations between the energy-adjusted dietary inflammation index (E-DII) score (both as continuous variable and in quintiles) and risk for breast cancer were assessed using conditional logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. No significant associations between the E-DII score and postmenopausal breast cancer risk were observed (adjusted OR Q5 vs Q1: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.17). Associations did not differ by estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status (ER + PR+: adjusted OR Q5 vs Q1: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.88-1.27; ER + or PR+: OR Q5 vs Q1: 1,07, 95% CI: 0.79-1.45; ER-PR-: OR Q5 vs Q1: 0.87 95% CI: 0.63-1.20). Our results regarding E-DII are consistent with previous studies reporting a lack of association between C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. The findings may reflect a real absence of association between dietary inflammatory potential and postmenopausal cancer risk or an underestimation of association due to recall bias. Further investigation is warranted in cohort studies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25987487
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-04-04
    Description: Background: Inflammation is important in chronic disease and can be modulated by dietary exposures. Our aim was to examine whether the inflammatory potential of diet after cancer diagnosis, assessed using the dietary inflammatory index (DII), is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality among women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Methods: Our analytic cohort included 2,150 postmenopausal women, ages 50 to 79 years at baseline, who developed invasive breast cancer during follow-up and completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on average 1.5 years after diagnosis. Women were followed from breast cancer diagnosis until death or the end of follow-up by October 2014. Energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) scores were calculated from food plus supplements using a nutrient–density approach. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause, breast cancer–specific, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Results: After a median 13.3 years of follow-up, 580 deaths from any cause occurred, including 212 breast cancer deaths and 103 CVD deaths. Lower (i.e., more anti-inflammatory) E-DII scores were associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality (HR Q1VSQ4 = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.24–0.82; P trend = 0.005), but not with breast cancer–specific mortality (HR Q1VSQ4 = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.62–1.49; P trend = 0.96) or all-cause mortality (HR Q1VSQ4 = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.63–1.05; P trend = 0.17). Conclusions: Consuming a more anti-inflammatory diet after breast cancer diagnosis may be a means for reducing risk of death from CVD. Impact: Survival after invasive breast cancer diagnosis may be improved by consumption of an anti-inflammatory diet. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(4); 454–63. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1055-9965
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7755
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background Chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are well-established causes of disability and premature death. Dietary components have been implicated in the etiology of these chronic diseases. Methods We examined the ability of the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII TM ) to predict all-cause, coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD and cancer mortality and incident CHD in the MONICA-KORA Cohort Studies. DII scores were computed from baseline 7-day dietary records in this cohort of 1297 men, who were aged 45–64 years when enrolled. During the follow-up period, 551 total (155 CHD, 244 CVD and 175 cancer-related deaths) and 213 validated incident CHD events were identified through mortality record linkage and active follow-up. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between DII scores and the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the endpoints described above. Results DII scores were significantly positively correlated with CRP ( P value 〈0.0001). Positive associations were noted between DII and all-cause mortality (HR Q4vsQ1 : 1.41; 95%CI 1.04–1.90; P -trend = 0.007) and incident CHD (HR Q4vsQ1 : 1.83; 95%CI 1.12–3.01; P -trend = 0.008). These associations were attenuated after further adjustment for smoking status, but remained significant for all-cause mortality. When stratified by smoking status, DII was associated with all-cause and cancer mortality among ex-smokers, in the absence of significant heterogeneity. Conclusion These results indicate that a pro-inflammatory diet as expressed by higher DII scores is associated with all-cause mortality. This association was more pronounced among ex-smokers in whom a significant association with cancer mortality was observed.
    Print ISSN: 1101-1262
    Electronic ISSN: 1464-360X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background Diet and inflammation have been implicated to play a role in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods In this Italian case–control study conducted between 1995 and 2003, we explored the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII TM ) and AMI. Cases were 760 patients, below age 79 years, with a first episode of nonfatal AMI and controls were 682 patients admitted to hospital for acute conditions unrelated to diet. The DII was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a reproducible and validated 78-item food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated through logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco, body mass index, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and other recognized confounding factors. Results Higher DII scores (i.e., indicating a more pro-inflammatory diet) were associated with increased likelihood of AMI when expressed both as continuous (OR continuous =1.14, 95% confidence interval, CI:1.05, 1.24; one-unit increase in DII score corresponding to ≈9% of the range of DII) and as quartiles (OR Quartile4vs1 = 1.60, 95%, CI 1.06, 2.41; P -trend = 0.02). Stratified analyses produced slightly stronger associations between DII and AMI among women, ≥60 years, never smokers, subjects with history of hypertension and subjects with no family history of AMI, however, in the absence of heterogeneity across strata. Conclusion A pro-inflammatory diet as indicated by higher DII scores is associated with increased likelihood of AMI.
    Print ISSN: 1101-1262
    Electronic ISSN: 1464-360X
    Topics: Medicine
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