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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Peptides 8 (1987), S. 961-965 
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: C Terminal ; Kidney ; N Terminal ; Neurotensin metabolism
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Peptides 12 (1991), S. 887-892 
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Characterization ; Hepatic fibrolamellar carcinoma ; Liver ; Metabolic clearance rate ; Neurotensin ; Neurotensin(6-13)
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Peptides 14 (1993), S. 1133-1139 
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Evolution ; Marsupial ; Nonblocked N-terminus ; Tribasic cleavage site ; Tyrosine sulfation
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The stomach hormone gastrin and the intestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) share a common C-terminal pentapep-tide sequence but have different biological roles. Gastrin is the major stimulant of gastric acid secretion and has a growth stimulatory effect on the secretory part of the stomach. The physiological roles of CCK are the stimulation of pancreatic secretion and the contraction of the gall-bladder.2. Several classes of receptors have been defined for peptides of the gastrin/CCK family. The CCKA receptor on pancreatic acini has a greater affinity for sulfated CCK than for gastrin, while the gastrin/CCKB receptor in gastric mucosa and brain has similar affinities for both gastrin and CCK. Potent and selective antagonists have been developed for both receptor classes.3. The structures of the CCKA and gastrin/CCKB receptors have been deduced from the nucleotide sequences of cloned cDNA. The receptors, which both belong to the family with seven transmembrane segments, control secretion via similar signalling mechanisms. Occupation of either receptor leads to activation of phospholipase C, with resultant increases in intracellular levels of inositol triphosphate and Ca2+. Mitogenic signalling pathways are also being defined.4. Recent studies have questioned the previous assumption that gastrin precursors are inactive. Glycine-extended gastrin has been shown to stimulate mitogenesis in some cell lines and may also have an autocrine role in the growth of colonic cancers. The receptors involved, which are clearly distinct in binding properties from the CCKA and gastrin/CCKB receptors, have not yet been cloned. Specific antagonists for the novel receptors will be required to define their function in further detail.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Plasma gastrin relesing peptide (GRP) is elevated in the foetal and maternal circulations of pregnant sheep. To determine the mechanisms for this increase the synthesis, secretion rate, metabolism and placental transfer of GRP were measued.2. Foetal metabolic clearance rate of GRP was significantly increased (P 〈 0.05) compared to the non-pregnant eve (1909 ± 2.6 (s.e.m.) and 11.8 ± 2.0 mL/min per kg, respectively). Production rate of GRP in the foetus was four in the foetus was four-fold higher than in the non-pregnant ewe reflecting the combination of the increased basal concentration and metabolic celarance rate in the foetus.3. Infused GRP did not cross the placenta. However, endogenous GRP was higher in the umbilical vein than in the umbilical artery, suggesting a uteroplacental origin for some of the GRP in the foetal circulation.4. Gastrin releasing peptide mRNA was synthesized in the pregnant endometrium with lower amounts found in the pregnant myometrium. No GRP mRNA was detected in the amnoin or chorioallantois.5. The results show that the previously reported increase in foetal concentration of GRP is from foetal and uteroplacental sources and is not a result of immaturity of clearance mechanims but rather from an increased production of GRP. With the demonstation that the uteroplacenatal unit synthesizes and stores GRP, additional studies on the regulation of GRP production from these sources are warranted.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The proposition that stimulation of the secretomotor nerve to the ovine parotid gland might involve co-release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was tested by studying responses to infusion of VIP directly into the gland's arterial blood supply and by assay of VIP in parotid venous blood.2. In unstimulated glands, an arterial blood concentration of 1.5–2.5 X 10−9 mol/L VIP did not evoke fluid secretion but it increased K+ and phosphate secretion and glandular blood flow. The same blood concentration of VIP potentiated the stimulation of salivary flow rate caused by intraarterial infusion of bethanechol but nerve stimulation was not potentiated. VIP increased glandular blood flow in both conditions of stimulation.3. Atropine blocked neurally stimulated salivary secretion but an increase in glandular blood flow was still detectable. There was therefore no evidence for a non-cholinergic neural mechanism for salivary secretion.4. Furthermore, VIP concentrations in glandular venous blood were not increased by nerve stimulation.5. The results indicate that exogenous VIP can affect the flow and composition of ovine parotid secretion but was not involved in the response to secretomotor nerve stimulation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Although gastrin is found in adult gastric juice, rapid enzymatic destruction by pepsin in the acid environment makes a physiological role in the adult unlikely.2. Gastric pH in the fetal sheep is neutral so that gastric juice gastrin could be present, and if present, have a physiological function.3. The aim of this study was to determine the presence, molecular forms and metabolism of gastrin in gastric juice.4. Gastrin was present in fetal gastric juice at significantly higher concentrations than in fetal plasma.5. The majority of gastric juice gastrin was present as the biologically active gastrin-17.6. Gastrin was stable in normal fetal gastric juice, but was rapidly metabolized to smaller C-terminal fragments when the gastric juice was acidified.7. With the known growth promoting effect of gastrin on gastrointestinal mucosa, gastrin in fetal juice could have a unique role in the in utero development of the gastrointestinal tract.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY 1. The effect of surgical denervation of the adrenal gland on ACTH-induced hypertension in the sheep has been examined. ACTH (80 iu/day) was administered for 5 days to eight sheep before and after bilateral surgical denervation of the adrenal.2. In intact sheep, ACTH-induced hypertension is associated with a significant increase in cardiac output and heart rate. Adrenal denervation obtained by sectioning of the lumbar sympathetic and splanchnic nerves supplying the adrenal gland did not alter the magnitude or time course of the hypertension, or the increase in heart rate.3. Adrenal denervation did not affect the increase in plasma sodium, the fall in plasma potassium, the initial urinary sodium retention, the increase in water turnover or the changes in blood corticosteroids which are seen during ACTH administration to intact sheep. However, in these adrenally denervated sheep ACTH treatment did not significantly change cardiac output.4. This study suggests an important role for a factor or factors from the adrenal cortex in causing ACTH-induced hypertension.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent vaso-active 37 amino acid peptide, typically elevated in plasma from patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), but undetectable in the plasma of normal subjects.2. The kidney is a major site for the clearance of exogenously infused CGRP but the intrarenal site of this clearance is unknown. Extra-organ clearance is also significant for CGRP, and whereas the site and mechanism of this degradation remain uncertain, the vasculature has been postulated as the most likely site.3. The isolated perfused rat kidney (IPRK) was studied to (i) localize the intrarenal site of CGRP clearance and (ii) determine the contribution of the renal vasculature to the clearance of CGRP. The half-life of CGRP in the filtering IPRK was 63.9 ± 4.5 min, whereas blocking of filtration by elevation of the perfusate osmolarity abolished the degradation. This suggests that (i) renal CGRP degradation occurs after glomerular filtration with intratubular metabolism and (ii) that there is no active CGRP degradation in the (glomerular) capillary endothelium.4. These results do not support the theory that renal vascular endothelium plays a major active role in CGRP degradation.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a product of alternate splicing of the calcitonin gene. It is found in nerves in the vasculature and is known from in vitro studies to be a potent vasodilator. It is found abnormally in the circulation of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and has been proposed to be a cause of symptoms. This study was designed to determine the dose-response effects of CGRP infusion in the intact conscious sheep on blood flow to liver and kidney, organs known to be richly innervated by CGRP-containing nerves.2. Blood flow was measured by an indicator dilution technique using [131I]-labelled iodohippurate. CGRP infusion at both 1 and 5 pmol/kg per min produced significant (P〈0.05) increases in both renal and hepatic blood flow. This increase in flow occurred despite a significant fall in perfusion pressure (P〈0.05) at the higher infusion rate. At the highest infusion rate of 10 pmol/kg per min, when fall in perfusion pressure was even more marked, renal and hepatic blood flow was maintained.3. We conclude that CGRP is vasodilatory in the renal and hepatic vascular beds and propose that nerves containing CGRP in those vessels may have a role in maintaining blood flow to those organs.
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