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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 56 (1985), S. 231-239 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The performance of a multielement array detector for measuring small spectral features superimposed on a large background has been examined. In order to have the sensitivity of detection limited only by counting statistics, two factors have to be critically considered: the nonuniform spatial response of the array detector, and the possible addition of noise by the collection system. For the special case discussed here, energy-loss spectroscopy of 100-keV electrons, the added noise was small. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) was measured to be DQE=0.87. Several techniques reducing the effect of the nonuniform response were tested: normalizing the spectra with an experimentally measured response curve, electronic differentiation to reduce the background, dynamic gain correction, and two methods of experimentally averaging the spatial response by measuring a sequence of repositioned spectra. Preservation of the statistical information present in a representative energy-loss spectrum is shown to be feasible.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 268 (1977), S. 556-558 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The swimbladder muscle of the toadfish Opsanus tau is a very fast twitch muscle with a time to peak contraction of 5-8 ms and an extraordinary development of the sarcoplasmic reticulum15. The extent of the SR (approximately 30% of fibre volume, C. Franzini-Armstrong, personal communication) and its ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cardiac muscle ; actin dynamics ; α-actinin ; vinculin ; microinjection ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: When fluorescently labeled contractile proteins are injected into embryonic muscle cells, they become incorporated into the cells' myofibrils. In order to determine if this exchange of proteins is unique to the embryonic stage of development, we isolated adult cardiac myocytes and microinjected them with fluorescently labeled actin, myosin light chains, α-actinin, and vinculin. Each of these proteins was incorporated into the adult cardiomyocytes and was colocalized with the cells'native proteins, despite the fact that the labeled proteins were prepared from noncardiac tissues. Within 10 min of injection, α-actinin was incorporated into Z-bands surrounding the site of injection. Similarly, 30 sec after injection, actin was incorporated into the entire I-bands at the site of injection. Following a 3-h incubation, increased actin fluorescence was noted at the intercalated disc. Vinculin exchange was seen in the intercalated discs, as well as in the Z-bands throug hout the cells. Myosin light chains required 4-6 h after injection to become incorporated into the A-bands of the adult muscle. Nonspecific proteins, such as fluorescent BSA, showed no association with the myofibrils or the former intercalated discs. When adult cells were maintained in culture for 10 days, they retain the ability to incorporate these contractile proteins into their myofibrils. T-tubules and the sarcoplasmic reticulum could be detected in periodic arrays in the freshly isolated cells using the membrane dye WW781 and DiOC3[3], respectively. In conclusion, the myofibrils in adult, as in embryonic, muscle cells are dynamic structures, permitting isoform transitions without dismantling of the myofibrils.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes ; fluorescence polarization ; actin ; confocal microscopy ; mutant ; infections ; PtK2 cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: During its motion inside host cells, Listeria monocytogenes promotes the formation of a column of actin filaments that extends outward from the distal end of the moving bacterium. The column is constructed of short actin filaments that polymerize at the bacteria-column interface. To get a measure of filament organization in the column, Listeria grown in cultured PtK2 cells were studied with steady state fluorescence polarization, confocal microscopy, and whole cell intermediate voltage electron microscopy. Although actin filament ordering was higher in nearby stress fibers than in the Listeria-associated actin, four distinct areas of ordering could be observed in fluorescence polarization ratio images of bacteria: (1) the surface of the bacteria, (2) the cytoplasm next to the bacteria, (3) the outer shell of the actin column, and (4) the core of the column. Filaments were preferentially oriented parallel to the long axis of the column with highest ordering along the long axis of the bacterial surface and in the shell of the tail. The lowest ordering was in the core (where filaments are possibly also shorter with respect to the cup and the shell), whereas in the adjacent cytoplasm, filaments were oriented perpendicular to the column. A mutant of Listeria that can polymerize actin around itself but cannot move intracellularly does not have its actin organized along the bacterial surface. Thus the alignment of the actin filaments along the bacterial surfaces may be important for the intracellular movement. These conclusions are also supported by confocal microscopy and whole mount electron microscopic data that also reveal that actin filaments can be deposited asymmetrically around the long axis of the bacteria, a distribution that may affect the direction of motility of Listeria monocytogenes inside infected cells. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 18 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Electron microscopy ; EELS ; feedback system ; peak stabilization ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: The position of the zero-loss peak in electron energy-loss spectra was sensed with a double photo diode. A signal, proportional to the disturbances from a central position, was amplified and fed back into a deflection coil in order to compensate for the origin of the disturbances. Thus, slow variations of the position of characteristic edges in the EEL spectrum could be reduced by a factor 100, and 60 Hz oscillations could be reduced by a factor 5.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The disposition of transverse (T) tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and T-SR junctions (triads) and the width of Z lines are matched to contractile properties in adult muscle fibres. We have studied the development of the membrane systems in the slow anterior (ALD) and the fast posterior (PLD) latissimus dorsi of the chicken in ovo (E14–E21) and after hatching (D1–D30). T tubules, SR, triads and Z lines were visualized using DiIC16[3] labelling for confocal microscopy and either Ca-osmium-ferrocyanide or standard procedures for electron microscopy. Anterior latissimus dorsi and PLD have similar, slow twitches in early development (E14–E16), but PLD suddenly becomes faster starting at E17–E18. We find that in coincidence with the differentiation of faster contraction properties (starting at E18–E19) density of triads is significantly higher and width of Z lines is narrower in PLD. The SR also begins to acquire fibre-type specific characteristics at this time. Early development of T tubules, on the other hand, is quite similar in the two muscles. Peripherally-located, longitudinally-oriented T tubules, and the first T networks crossing the fibre center appear earlier in ALD (E14–E15 and E16) than in PLD (E14–E16 and E17), but have similar dispositions. The final fibre-type specific distribution of T tubules is achieved after hatching. Some T tubules-rich fibres in the ALD, presumably future fast fibres, develop extensive T tubule networks at early stages. Location of triads at the Z line in pectoralis occurs in three steps: an initial location of longitudinally oriented triads at the A-I junction; a subsequent move to the Z lines and finally a rotation to a transverse orientation.
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