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  • 1
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; HEALTH ; POPULATIONS ; INEQUALITIES ; DETERMINANTS ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; METAANALYSIS ; socioeconomic status ; SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS ; Educational level ; Pancreatic cancer incidence
    Abstract: Introduction: Until now, studies examining the relationship between socioeconomic status and pancreatic cancer incidence have been inconclusive. Aim: To prospectively investigate to what extent pancreatic cancer incidence varies according to educational level within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: In the EPIC study, socioeconomic status at baseline was measured using the highest level of education attained. Hazard ratios by educational level and a summary index, the relative indices of inequality (Rh), were estimated using Cox regression models stratified by age, gender, and center and adjusted for known risk factors. In addition, we conducted separate analyses by age, gender and geographical region. Results: Within the source population of 407, 944 individuals at baseline, 490 first incident primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases were identified in 9 European countries. The crude difference in risk of pancreatic cancer according to level of education was small and not statistically significant (RII = 1.14, 95% CI 0.80-1.62). Adjustment for known risk factors reduced the inequality estimates to only a small extent. In addition, no statistically significant associations were observed for age groups (adjusted RII 〈= (60) (years) = 0.85, 95% CI 0.44-1.64, adjusted RII〉 60 years = 1.18, 95% CI 0.73-1.90), gender (adjusted RIImale = 1.20, 95% CI 0.68-2.10, adjusted RIIfemale = 0.96, 95% CI 0.56-1.62) or geographical region (adjusted RIINorthern Europe = 1.14, 95% CI 0.81-1.61, adjusted RIIMiddle (Europe) = 1.72, 95% CI 0.93-3.19, adjusted RIISouthern Europe = 0.75, 95% CI 0.32-1.80). Conclusion: Despite large educational inequalities in many risk factors within the EPIC study, we found no evidence for an association between educational level and the risk of developing pancreatic cancer in this European cohort.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20829145
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  • 2
    Keywords: smoking ; UNITED-STATES ; adenocarcinoma ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; ESOPHAGUS ; HELICOBACTER-PYLORI ; STOMACH-CANCER ; METAANALYSIS ; BLACK TEA
    Abstract: Prospective studies examining the association between coffee and tea consumption and gastric cancer risk have shown inconsistent results. We investigated the association between coffee (total, caffeinated and decaffeinated) and tea consumption and the risk of gastric cancer by anatomical site and histological type in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Coffee and tea consumption were assessed by dietary questionnaires at baseline. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox regression models. During 11.6 years of follow up, 683 gastric adenocarcinoma cases were identified among 477,312 participants. We found no significant association between overall gastric cancer risk and consumption of total coffee (HR 1.09, 95%-confidence intervals [CI]: 0.84-1.43; quartile 4 vs. non/quartile 1), caffeinated coffee (HR 1.14, 95%-CI: 0.82-1.59; quartile 4 vs. non/quartile 1), decaffeinated coffee (HR 1.07, 95%-CI: 0.75-1.53; tertile 3 vs. non/tertile 1) and tea (HR 0.81, 95%-CI: 0.59-1.09; quartile 4 vs. non/quartile 1). When stratified by anatomical site, we observed a significant positive association between gastric cardia cancer risk and total coffee consumption per increment of 100 mL/day (HR 1.06, 95%-CI: 1.03-1.11). Similarly, a significant positive association was observed between gastric cardia cancer risk and caffeinated coffee consumption (HR 1.98, 95%-CI: 1.16-3.36, p-trend=0.06; quartile 3 vs. non/quartile 1) and per increment of 100 mL/day (HR 1.09, 95%-CI: 1.04-1.14). In conclusion, consumption of total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea is not associated with overall gastric cancer risk. However, total and caffeinated coffee consumption may be associated with an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. Further prospective studies are needed to rule out chance or confounding. What's New? Can drinking coffee or tea lead to cancer? Can they protect against cancer? These popular drinks certainly contain antioxidants, but despite many investigations into the question, we still have no clear answer. A new study has plied the data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) in search of a link. Participants self-reported their coffee and tea consumption by questionnaire. The authors found no link between drinking tea or coffee - with or without caffeine - and overall risk of gastric cancer; they did discern a slight increase in gastric cardia cancer with consumption of caffeinated coffee.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25236393
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  • 3
    Keywords: POPULATION ; METABOLISM ; smoking ; CONSUMPTION ; CALIBRATION ; antioxidants ; BETA-CAROTENE ; ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL ; SERUM ; COHORTS
    Abstract: Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). 446 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were matched to 446 controls by age at blood collection, study center, sex, date and time of blood collection, fasting status and hormone use. Plasma carotenoids (- and -carotene, lycopene, -cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein), - and -tocopherol and retinol were measured by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma vitamin C by a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk were estimated using a conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, waist circumference, cotinine levels and diabetes status. Inverse associations with pancreatic cancer risk were found for plasma -carotene (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.52, 95%CI 0.31-0.88, p for trend=0.02), zeaxanthin (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.53, 95%CI 0.30-0.94, p for trend=0.06) and -tocopherol (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.62, 95%CI 0.39-0.99, p for trend=0.08. For - and -carotene, lutein, sum of carotenoids and -tocopherol, heterogeneity between geographical regions was observed. In conclusion, our results show that higher plasma concentrations of -carotene, zeaxanthin and -tocopherol may be inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, but further studies are warranted. What's new? Fruits and vegetables may play a role in the prevention of pancreatic cancer, but associations between the antioxidants those foods contain and disease risk remain unclear. In this study, pancreatic cancer risk was inversely associated with increased prediagnostic plasma concentrations of the antioxidants -carotene, zeaxanthin, and -tocopherol. Geographic variations were also detected. In Northern European countries, inverse associations with risk were found for blood levels of several carotenoids, whereas the association was strongest for -tocopherol in Southern European countries. The role of carotenoids and vitamins should be considered in subsequent investigations of the etiology of pancreatic cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25175624
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; tumor ; carcinoma ; MODEL ; COHORT ; RISK ; POLYMORPHISMS ; WOMEN ; colorectal cancer ; RISK FACTOR ; TOBACCO ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; LIFE-STYLE FACTORS ; RECTAL-CANCER ; ASSOCIATIONS ; METAANALYSIS ; INCREASED RISK ; COLON TUMORS ; Tumor Location ; TUMOR MICROSATELLITE INSTABILITY
    Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: There has been consistent evidence for a relationship between smoking and colorectal cancer (CRC), although it is not clear whether the colon or rectum is more sensitive to the effects of smoking. We investigated the relationships between cigarette smoking and risk of CRC and tumor location. METHODS: We analyzed data from 465,879 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study; 2,741 developed CRC during the follow-up period (mean 8.7 years). Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: The risk of colon carcinoma was increased among ever smokers (HR 1.18, 95%CI 1.06-1.32) and former cigarette smokers (HR 1.21, 95%CI 1.08-1.36), compared with never smokers; the increased risk for current smokers was of borderline significance (HR 1.13, 95%CI 0.98-1.31). When stratified for tumor location, the risk of proximal colon cancer was increased for former (HR 1.25, 95%CI 1.04-1.50) and current smokers (HR 1.31, 95%CI 1.06-1.64), but the risks for cancers in the distal colon or rectum were not. Subsite analyses showed a non-significant difference between the proximal and distal colon (p=0.45) for former smokers and a significant difference for current smokers (p=0.02). For smokers that had stopped smoking for at least 20 years, the risk of developing colon cancer was similar to that of never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Ever smokers have an increased risk of colon cancer, which appeared to be more pronounced in the proximal than the distal colon location.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21029790
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  • 5
    Keywords: colon ; ASSOCIATION ; cholesterol ; C-REACTIVE PROTEIN ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; RECTAL-CANCER ; insulin ; metabolic syndrome ; PARTICLE-SIZE ; SERUM TRIGLYCERIDE
    Abstract: Objective To examine the association between serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA), apolipoprotein B and the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). Design Nested case-control study. Setting The study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a cohort of more than 520 000 participants from 10 western European countries. Participants 1238 cases of incident CRC, which developed after enrolment into the cohort, were matched with 1238 controls for age, sex, centre, follow-up time, time of blood collection and fasting status. Main outcome measures Serum concentrations were quantitatively determined by colorimetric and turbidimetric methods. Dietary and lifestyle data were obtained from questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs which were adjusted for height, weight, smoking habits, physical activity, education, consumption of fruit, vegetables, meat, fish, alcohol, fibre and energy. Results After adjustments, the concentrations of HDL and apoA were inversely associated with the risk of colon cancer (RR for 1 SD increase of 16.6 mg/dl in HDL and 32.0 mg/dl in apoA of 0.78 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.89) and 0.82 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.94), respectively). No association was observed with the risk of rectal cancer. Additional adjustment for biomarkers of systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and oxidative stress or exclusion of the first 2 years of follow-up did not influence the association between HDL and risk of colon cancer. Conclusions These findings show that high concentrations of serum HDL are associated with a decreased risk of colon cancer. The mechanism behind this association needs further elucidation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21383385
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  • 6
    Keywords: RISK-FACTORS ; prevention ; COLON-CANCER ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; nutrition ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; METAANALYSIS ; RECTAL CANCERS ; PROPORTION ; Attributable risk
    Abstract: Background: Excess body weight, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and certain dietary factors are individually related to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk; however, little is known about their joint effects. The aim of this study was to develop a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) composed of five potentially modifiable lifestyle factors healthy weight, physical activity, non-smoking, limited alcohol consumption and a healthy diet, and to explore the association of this index with CRC incidence using data collected within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Methods: In the EPIC cohort, a total of 347,237 men and women, 25- to 70-years old, provided dietary and lifestyle information at study baseline (1992 to 2000). Over a median follow-up time of 12 years, 3,759 incident CRC cases were identified. The association between a HLI and CRC risk was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and population attributable risks (PARs) have been calculated. Results: After accounting for study centre, age, sex and education, compared with 0 or 1 healthy lifestyle factors, the hazard ratio (HR) for CRC was 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44 to 0.77) for two factors, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.89) for three factors, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58 to 0.75) for four factors and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.54 to 0.74) for five factors; P-trend 〈0.0001. The associations were present for both colon and rectal cancers, HRs, 0.61 (95% CI: 0.50 to 0.74; P for trend 〈0.0001) for colon cancer and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.88; P-trend 〈0.0001) for rectal cancer, respectively (P-difference by cancer sub-site = 0.10). Overall, 16% of the new CRC cases (22% in men and 11% in women) were attributable to not adhering to a combination of all five healthy lifestyle behaviours included in the index. Conclusions: Combined lifestyle factors are associated with a lower incidence of CRC in European populations characterized by western lifestyles. Prevention strategies considering complex targeting of multiple lifestyle factors may provide practical means for improved CRC prevention.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25319089
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  • 7
    Keywords: ULCERATIVE-COLITIS ; CROHNS-DISEASE ; RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS ; POUCH-ANAL ANASTOMOSIS ; ANTI-SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE ; ANTINEUTROPHIL CYTOPLASMIC ANTIBODIES ; MANNAN-BINDING LECTIN ; INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY ; NOD2/CARD15 GENOTYPE ; BACTERIAL FLAGELLIN
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies (ASCAs) have been detected in the serum of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) and their unaffected family members. The aim of this study was to establish the value of serological markers as predictors of UC and CD. DESIGN: Individuals who developed CD or UC were identified from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. At recruitment, none of the participants had a diagnosis of CD or UC. For each incident case, two controls were randomly selected matched for centre, date of birth, sex, date of recruitment and time of follow-up. Serum of cases and controls obtained at recruitment were analysed for ASCA IgG, ASCA IgA, perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA), antibodies against Escherichia coli outer membrane porin C (OmpC) and flagellin CBir1. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine risk of CD and UC. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to test accuracy. RESULTS: A total of 77 individuals were diagnosed with CD and 167 with UC after a mean follow-up of 4.5 (SD 3.2) and 4.4 (SD 3.1) years following blood collection, respectively. Combinations of pANCA, ASCA, anti-CBir1 and anti-OmpC were most accurate in predicting incident CD and UC (area under curve 0.679 and 0.657, respectively). The predictive value of the combination of markers increased when time to diagnosis of CD or UC decreased. CONCLUSION: A panel of serological markers is able to predict development of CD and UC in individuals from a low-risk population.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22842615
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  • 8
    Keywords: HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; BODY-WEIGHT ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; nutrition ; BILE-DUCT ; EPIDEMIOLOGIC EVIDENCE ; metabolic syndrome ; Chronic disease ; CHRONIC HEPATITIS INFECTION ; GALLBLADDER CANCER
    Abstract: The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; N = 191), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD; N = 66), and biliary tract (N = 236) cancer risk was investigated in 477 206 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Dietary intake was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from proportional hazard models. HBV/HCV status was measured in a nested case-control subset. Higher dietary GI, GL, or increased intake of total carbohydrate was not associated with liver or biliary tract cancer risk. For HCC, divergent risk estimates were observed for total sugar = 1.43 (1.17-1.74) per 50 g/day, total starch = 0.70 (0.55-0.90) per 50 g/day, and total dietary fiber = 0.70 (0.52-0.93) per 10 g/day. The findings for dietary fiber were confirmed among HBV/HCV-free participants [0.48 (0.23-1.01)]. Similar associations were observed for IBD [dietary fiber = 0.59 (0.37-0.99) per 10 g/day], but not biliary tract cancer. Findings suggest that higher consumption of dietary fiber and lower consumption of total sugars are associated with lower HCC risk. In addition, high dietary fiber intake could be associated with lower IBD cancer risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23123507
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  • 9
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; colon ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; colorectal cancer ; REGION ; UNITED-STATES ; nutrition ; INEQUALITIES ; rectum ; SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS ; DEPRIVATION ; Educational level ; Tumor Location
    Abstract: Existing evidence is inconclusive on whether socioeconomic status (SES) and educational inequalities influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, and whether low or high SES/educational level is associated with developing CRC. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between educational level and CRC. We studied data from 400,510 participants in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study, of whom 2,447 developed CRC (colon: 1,551, rectum: 896, mean follow-up 8.3 years). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis stratified by age, gender and center, and adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. We conducted separate analyses for tumor location, gender and geographical region. Compared with participants with college/university education, participants with vocational secondary education or less had a nonsignificantly lower risk of developing CRC. When further stratified for tumor location, adjusted risk estimates for the proximal colon were statistically significant for primary education or less (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.57-0.94) and for vocational secondary education (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.98). The inverse association between low education and CRC risk was particularly found in women and Southern Europe. These associations were statistically significant for CRC, for colon cancer and for proximal colon cancer. In conclusion, CRC risk, especially in the proximal colon, is lower in subjects with a lower educational level compared to those with a higher educational level. This association is most pronounced in women and Southern Europe
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21412763
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  • 10
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; RISK ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; OBESITY ; NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA ; C-REACTIVE PROTEIN ; EPIC ; nutrition ; pancreatic cancer ; TNF-ALPHA ; inflammation ; TNF RECEPTOR ; SERUM-LEVELS ; IL-6 ; CRP ; INTERLEUKIN-6 IL-6
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Established risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking, long-standing diabetes, high body fatness, and chronic pancreatitis, all of which can be characterised by aspects of inflammatory processes. However, prospective studies investigating the relation between inflammatory markers and pancreatic cancer risk are scarce. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, measuring prediagnostic blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble receptors of tumour necrosis factor-a (sTNF-R1, R2) in 455 pancreatic cancer cases and 455 matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: None of the inflammatory markers were significantly associated with risk of pancreatic cancer overall, although a borderline significant association was observed for higher circulating sTNF-R2 (crude OR = 1.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-2.39), highest vs lowest quartile). In women, however, higher sTNF-R1 levels were significantly associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (crude OR = 1.97 (95% CI 1.02-3.79)). For sTNF-R2, risk associations seemed to be stronger for diabetic individuals and those with a higher BMI. CONCLUSION: Prospectively, CRP and IL-6 do not seem to have a role in our study with respect to risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas sTNF-R1 seemed to be a risk factor in women and sTNF-R2 might be a mediator in the risk relationship between overweight and diabetes with pancreatic cancer. Further large prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of proinflammatory proteins and cytokines in the pathogenesis of exocrine pancreatic cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22617158
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