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  • 1
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The kinetics of the aromatic nucleophilic substitution (SNAr) reactions of 1,2-dinitrobenzene (1,2-DNB) with butylamine (BA) and piperidine (PIP) were investigated as a function of the amine concentration and temperature, in chloroform, ethyl acetate, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetonitrile (ACN), dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene and diisopropyl ether.In the set of solvents consisting of ethyl acetate, THF, ACN, DMF and DMSO, neither reaction is catalysed (kA = k1). The sequence and range of reactivity for BA and PIP are similar in these solvents. These results indicate that reactions in which nitro in the leaving group behave differently from SNAr reactions with other leaving groups, such as halogens or alkoxy groups, since an intramolecular hydrogen bond may be expected between the leaving nitro group and the ammonium H of the nucleophiles. The correlations of the rate coefficients obtained with Taft and Kamlet's solvatochromic method support these conclusions.On the other hand, these reactions show mild acceleration with relatively non-polar solvents such as the aromatics and diisopropyl ether. The donor properties of these solvents and experiments with solvent mixtures suggest the formation of electron donor-acceptor complexes between them and 1,2-DNB. Hence the preferential solvation of 1,2-DNB by the donor solvent accounts for the mechanism observed.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Solvent effects on the absorption spectra of N-(p-nitrophenyl)dimethylenediamine (Ia), N-(p-nitrophenyl)trimethylenediamine (Ib), N-(p-nitrophenyl)tetramethylenediamine (Ic). N-methyl-N-(p-nitrophenyl)tetramethylenediamine (II), N-butyl-p-nitroaniline (III) and N-(o-nitrophenyl)trimethylenediamine (IV) were studied at different temperatures. Whereas II, III and IV do not show any variation in their spectra characteristics with changes in temperature, I shows a hypsochromic shift with a hypochromic effect when the temperature is increased. The Kamlet and Taft solvatochromic comparison method was applied. A strong effect of the β parameter on I and III was interpreted as being due to the hydrogen bond donor ability of the H atom in the aromatic amino groups. In I, the β influence increases with increase in temperature. These facts are explained by proposing the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds between amine groups in all compounds I, besides the intermolecular interactions between compounds I and the solvent. On the other hand, the values of vo, s and b for Ib are smaller than the corresponding values for Ia and Ic. Since in Ib a six-membered ring may be formed, a more stable bond is expected. Comparative 1H NMR of the aniline hydrogen for I and IV (in non-hydrogen bond acceptor solvents) shows a particular downfield chemical shift for I which suggests hydrogen bond formation. Since this effect is independent of concentration, the hydrogen bond is assumed to be intramolecular, in agreement with solvatochromic and thermochromic studies. These conclusions were corroborated by IR spectroscopy in the solid state and in chloroform solutions.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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