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    Publication Date: 2014-03-14
    Description: The ultimate origin of water in the Earth's hydrosphere is in the deep Earth--the mantle. Theory and experiments have shown that although the water storage capacity of olivine-dominated shallow mantle is limited, the Earth's transition zone, at depths between 410 and 660 kilometres, could be a major repository for water, owing to the ability of the higher-pressure polymorphs of olivine--wadsleyite and ringwoodite--to host enough water to comprise up to around 2.5 per cent of their weight. A hydrous transition zone may have a key role in terrestrial magmatism and plate tectonics, yet despite experimental demonstration of the water-bearing capacity of these phases, geophysical probes such as electrical conductivity have provided conflicting results, and the issue of whether the transition zone contains abundant water remains highly controversial. Here we report X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopic data that provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence for the terrestrial occurrence of any higher-pressure polymorph of olivine: we find ringwoodite included in a diamond from Juina, Brazil. The water-rich nature of this inclusion, indicated by infrared absorption, along with the preservation of the ringwoodite, is direct evidence that, at least locally, the transition zone is hydrous, to about 1 weight per cent. The finding also indicates that some kimberlites must have their primary sources in this deep mantle region.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pearson, D G -- Brenker, F E -- Nestola, F -- McNeill, J -- Nasdala, L -- Hutchison, M T -- Matveev, S -- Mather, K -- Silversmit, G -- Schmitz, S -- Vekemans, B -- Vincze, L -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 13;507(7491):221-4. doi: 10.1038/nature13080.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, 1-26 Earth Sciences Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E3, Canada. ; Geoscience Institute - Mineralogy, Goethe University, Altenhoferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany. ; Dipartimento di Geoscienze, Universita di Padova, 35137 Padua, Italy. ; Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK. ; Institut fur Mineralogie und Kristallographie, Universitat Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien, Austria. ; Trigon GeoServices Ltd, 2780 South Jones Boulevard, #35-15, Las Vegas, Nevada 89146, USA. ; Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24622201" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-08-16
    Description: Seven particles captured by the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector and returned to Earth for laboratory analysis have features consistent with an origin in the contemporary interstellar dust stream. More than 50 spacecraft debris particles were also identified. The interstellar dust candidates are readily distinguished from debris impacts on the basis of elemental composition and/or impact trajectory. The seven candidate interstellar particles are diverse in elemental composition, crystal structure, and size. The presence of crystalline grains and multiple iron-bearing phases, including sulfide, in some particles indicates that individual interstellar particles diverge from any one representative model of interstellar dust inferred from astronomical observations and theory.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Westphal, Andrew J -- Stroud, Rhonda M -- Bechtel, Hans A -- Brenker, Frank E -- Butterworth, Anna L -- Flynn, George J -- Frank, David R -- Gainsforth, Zack -- Hillier, Jon K -- Postberg, Frank -- Simionovici, Alexandre S -- Sterken, Veerle J -- Nittler, Larry R -- Allen, Carlton -- Anderson, David -- Ansari, Asna -- Bajt, Sasa -- Bastien, Ron K -- Bassim, Nabil -- Bridges, John -- Brownlee, Donald E -- Burchell, Mark -- Burghammer, Manfred -- Changela, Hitesh -- Cloetens, Peter -- Davis, Andrew M -- Doll, Ryan -- Floss, Christine -- Grun, Eberhard -- Heck, Philipp R -- Hoppe, Peter -- Hudson, Bruce -- Huth, Joachim -- Kearsley, Anton -- King, Ashley J -- Lai, Barry -- Leitner, Jan -- Lemelle, Laurence -- Leonard, Ariel -- Leroux, Hugues -- Lettieri, Robert -- Marchant, William -- Ogliore, Ryan -- Ong, Wei Jia -- Price, Mark C -- Sandford, Scott A -- Sans Tresseras, Juan-Angel -- Schmitz, Sylvia -- Schoonjans, Tom -- Schreiber, Kate -- Silversmit, Geert -- Sole, Vicente A -- Srama, Ralf -- Stadermann, Frank -- Stephan, Thomas -- Stodolna, Julien -- Sutton, Stephen -- Trieloff, Mario -- Tsou, Peter -- Tyliszczak, Tolek -- Vekemans, Bart -- Vincze, Laszlo -- Von Korff, Joshua -- Wordsworth, Naomi -- Zevin, Daniel -- Zolensky, Michael E -- 30714 Stardust@home dusters -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Aug 15;345(6198):786-91. doi: 10.1126/science.1252496.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. westphal@ssl.berkeley.edu. ; Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA. ; Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA. ; Geoscience Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany. ; Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. ; State University of New York at Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, NY, USA. ; Jacobs Technology/ESCG, NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, TX, USA. ; Institut fur Geowissenschaften, University of Heidelberg, Germany. ; Institut des Sciences de la Terre, Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers de Grenoble, Grenoble, France. ; Institut fur Raumfahrtsysteme (IRS), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany. IGEP, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany. Max Planck Institut fur Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany. International Space Sciences Institute, Bern, Switzerland. ; Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC, USA. ; Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science, NASA JSC, Houston, TX, USA. ; Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL, USA. ; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany. ; Space Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. ; University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK. ; University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium. ; University of New Mexico. ; European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble, France. ; University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. ; Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA. ; Max-Planck-Institut fur Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany. ; International Space Sciences Institute, Bern, Switzerland. ; Max-Planck-Institut fur Chemie, Mainz, Germany. ; 615 William Street, Apt 405, Midland, Ontario, Canada. ; Natural History Museum, London, UK. ; Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL, USA. ; Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon, France. ; University Lille 1, France. ; University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA. ; NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA. ; IRS, University Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, USA. ; Wexbury, Farthing Green Lane, Stoke Poges, South Buckinghamshire, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25124433" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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