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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Nostoc virus N-1 ; Temperature ; Adsorption ; One-step growth ; Viral development ; Nostoc muscorum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This study was an attempt to observe the effects of temperature on adsorption and one-step growth of the virus N-1 infecting the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. Adsorption rate was found to be maximum at 40° C whereas no adsorption occurred at 10° C. The Q 10 value was about 2.03 and the energy of activation, Ea was 16.3 kcal/ mole for the adsorption process. The development cycle of the virus was temperature sensitive. With increase in temperature, a gradual increase in inhibition of virus yield i.e. 8.33% at 30° C, 35.3% at 35° C and complete inhibition at 40° C was observed. Out of 7 h latent period, the early 4 h were temperature sensitive and heat treatment had a reversible inhibitory effect on virus development. The temperature treatment did not affect the rise period but burst-size was reduced.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Blue-green algal virus N-1 ; Adsorption ; Host cell aging ; Killed cells ; Saline magnesium chloride solution ; Amino acids ; pH ; Nostoc muscorum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The adsorption rate of the cyanovirus N-1 infecting the nitrogen-fixing blue-green alga Nostoc muscorum decreased with aging of algal cultures and the virus failed to adsorb to the dead host cells. The adsorption rate declined in saline magnesium chloride solution compared to that in algal growth medium. The addition of amino acids like L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine failed to enhance the adsorption rate of the virus. Optimal pH of adsorption was 7.6 to 8.1.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 103 (1975), S. 297-302 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Photoreactivation ; UV-Irradiation ; Cylindrospermum ; Plectonema boryanum ; Fischerella muscicola ; Cyanophage LPP-1
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity and photoreactivation of blue-green algae Cylindrospermum sp., Plectonema boryanum, spores of Fischerella muscicola and algal virus (cyanophage) LPP-1 were studied. The survival value after UV irradiation of filaments of Cylindrospermum sp. and Virus LPP-1 showed exponential trend and these were comparatively sensitive towards UV than F. muscicola and P. boryanum. Photoreactivation of UV-induced damage occurred in black, blue, green, yellow, red and white light in Cylindrospermum sp., however only black, blue and white light were capable of photorepair of UV-induced damage in P. boryanum, spores of F. muscicola and virus LPP-1 in infected host alga. Pre-exposure to yellow and black light did not show photoprotection. The non-heterocystous and nitrogen fixation-less mutants of Cylindrospermum sp. were not induced by UV and their spontaneous mutation frequency was not affected after photoreactivation. The short trichome mutants of P.boryanum were more resistant towards UV. The occurrence of photoreactivation of UV-induced killing in wide range of light in Cylindrospermum sp. is the first report in organisms.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 89 (1973), S. 317-320 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Effect of pesticides, i.e., Benzene Hexachloride, Lindane, Diazinon and Endrin that are often used in India was observed on nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae Cylindrospermum sp., Aulosira fertilissima Ghose and aerobically non-nitrogen-fixing blue-green alga Plectonema boryanum strain 594. These algae were sensitive for BHC in comparison to other pesticides. A. fertilissima and P. boryanum were more resistant than Cylindrospermum sp.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 92 (1973), S. 59-62 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Frequent growth of unicellular blue-green alga Aphanothece sp. was observed in medium free of combined nitrogen. Its generation time was 12 h and more than 2 mg of nitrogen was fixed in 25 days. Its growth and nitrogen fixation were comparable to other heterocystous algae.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Litterfall ; Litter decomposition ; Nutrient immobilization ; Nutrient mineralization ; Mine spoil
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract  Litterfall, leaf litter decomposition and N and P release were studied in four tree species (Dalbergia sissoo, Azadirachta indica, Pongamia pinnata and Shorea robusta) planted on a mine spoil habitat. Annual litterfall varied from 1220 kg ha–1 in the S. robusta stand to 3620 kg ha–1 in the A. indica stand. The fast-growing species A. indica and D. sissoo exhibited higher litter production in comparison to the other two slow-growing species. The total N returned to the soil through litterfall ranged from 8.6 kg ha–1 year–1 in the S. robusta stand to 36.5 kg ha–1 year–1 in the D. sissoo stand. The annual percent leaf litter mass loss was distinctly greater in A. indica (73%) and D. sissoo (69%) in comparison to P. pinatta (59%) and S. robusta (47%). The mean relative decomposition rates of leaf litter material were maximum in the rainy season and minimum in summer. Rainfall and its associated variables exhibited greater control over litter docomposition than temperature. Lignin and water-soluble compounds were better predictors of annual mass loss rates accounting for 90% variability. Mass loss was positively correlated with N and P mineralization rates. Lignin was the best predictor of annual N and P mineralization rates. Nutrient release pattern differed; constant release occurred in A. indica, initial release followed by delayed immobilization and release occurred in D. sissoo and P. pinnata, and initial immobilization followed by gradual release was noticed in S. robusta. A. indica and D. sissoo, showing high litterfall and rapid litter decomposition rate, hold promise for the rehabilitation of nutrient-poor coal mine spoils. On the other hand, S. robusta with less litterfall and a slow decomposition rate may prove disadvantageous.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biology and fertility of soils 4 (1987), S. 15-19 
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Nitrogen fixation ; N-balance studies ; Azolla ; Blue-green algae ; Chemical N fertilization ; Rice
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary A nitrogen balance study conducted in ceramic pots under net house conditions for four seasons showed that flooded rice soil leaves a positive nitrogen balance (N increase) in soil after rice cropping in both fertilized and unfertilized soil. Recovery of nitrogen from rice soil was more than its input in unfertilized soil, but it was reverse in fertilized soil. Incorporation of Azolla or BGA twice as basal and 20 days after transplanting (DAT) alone or in combination showed higher nitrogen balance and N2-fixation (N gain) in soil than in that where it was applied once either as basal or 20 DAT. Planted soil showed more N2-fixation than that of fallow rice, and flooded soil fixed more nitrogen in comparison to non-flooded soil in light but less in dark. Soil exposed to light fixed more nitrogen than that of unexposed soil in both flooded and non-flooded conditions.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Effect of commercial grade pesticide furadan (3% a.i. as carbofuran) was studied on the survival, growth and nitrogen fixation of blue-green algaNostoc muscorum. The lower concentration of furadan i.e. 25 μg/ml enhanced survival, growth and nitrogen fixation in the alga whereas these were gradually inhibited in higher concentrations (50–1000 μ/ml) and the presence of more than 1200 μg/ml was algicidal. The preliminary observations revealed that pesticide is biodegraded by the alga.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The spontaneous and nitrosoguanidine inducedN-1 virus resistant mutants of the blue-green algaNostoc muscorum were isolated with the average mutation frequency of 3.55×10−5 and 6.08×10−4 respectively. Of the surviving colonies 8 per cent became virus sensitive, whereas out of the remaining 92 per cent 9.3 per cent showed lysogenic behaviour and 13.3 per cent showed poor or no nitrogen fixing ability. Mutation to virus-resistance was independent of the presence of the virus. Spontaneous host range mutants of virus were not found in repeated experiments.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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