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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: dermatophytes ; survey ; United States ; humans ; 1985/87
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A survey of dermatophytes isolated from patients seeking medical advice was made from 1985 to 1987 in the United States. The survey included 54 locations with data from 45 cities and one state. Listing of the isolated dermatophytes and the frequency given by percentage of the total follows: Trichophyton rubrum 54.8%, T. tonsurans 31.3%, T. mentagrophytes 6.0%, Microsporum canis 4.0%, Epidermophyton floccosum 2.0%, M. gypseum 0.6%, and T. verrucosum 0.2%. Out of a total of 14,696 isolates M. audouinii was cultured 13 times, T. violaceum 12 times, M. nanum 6 times, T. terrestre 4 times, and T. soudanense twice. Single isolations were made of M.fulvum, M. ferrugineum and T. schoenleinii. Collection of dermatophyte data in Tucson, Arizona, began in 1966. In 1987, the first case of tinea capitis caused by T. tonsurans was observed. Other isolates of this organism as the cause of tinea capitis were made in this city during that year. These infections were in black children. With the recent growth of Tucson, the percentage of blacks in the population increased and this pathogen was introduced into the general population.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 27 (1965), S. 369-378 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Delayed hypersensitivity to potent coccidioidin developed in guinea pigs immunized with deadC. immitis arthrospores and guinea pigs infected with an aerosol ofC. immitis arthrospores at weeks 1 and 2. Delayed hypersensitivity in control animals sensitized by repeated intradermal testing developed at weeks 3 and 4. The delayed hypersensitivity responses were characterized grossly by indurations larger than 25 mm2 and could be seen at 6 and 24 hours after testing. Retesting reduced the size of the 24 hour indurations when compared to virginal reactions. The retest delayed reactions in infected animals had indurations at 24 and 48 hours that were larger than those in the other groups. In those animals that were skin test positive but not challenged no tube precipitins, agar gel precipitins, CF antibodies, anaphylaxis or immediate hypersensitivity were detected. Because of the inability to detect precipitins the early phase of the hypersensitivity seen at 6 hours was not considered an Arthus reaction.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Neutral (Emmons modification) Sabouraud medium, Dermatophyte Test Medium and Littman oxgall agar, with substitutions in type of antibacterial antibiotic, were quantitatively evaluated by colony counts for ability to support growth when suspensions of trypsintreated guinea pig skin scales, infected withTrichophyton mentagrophytes, were used as inocula. Both liquid and powder form of gentamicin sulfate were used separately in place of other routinely used antibacterial antibiotics. Also evaluated were three isolation temperatures. No differences in ability to support growth were noted among media. No difference was noted between the two forms of gentamicin. No data were available on the antibacterial activities of the antibiotics because no bacterial growth was produced on any of the media. Room temperature (24 °–26 °C), 30 °C and 37° C were found to support growth similarly as primary isolation temperatures for this fungus.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: dermatophytes ; survey ; United States ; humans ; 1982/84
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A survey of dermatophytes isolated from patients seeking medical advice was made from 1982 to 1984 in the United States. The survey included 59 locations with data from 49 cities and one state. Listing of the isolated dermatophytes and the frequency given by percentage of total follows: Trichophyton rubrum 46.8%, T. tonsurans 33.3%, T. mentagrophytes 10.1%, Microsporum canis 4.5%, Epidermophyton floccosum 3,5%, M. gypseum and T. verrucosum both 0.7%, M. audouinii and T. terrestre both 0.1%, and T. violaceum 0.06%. No isolations of M. ferrugineum or T. schoenleinii were reported. Temporal increases were observed for frequencies of T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans and M. canis, and decreases occurred for frequencies of E. floccosum and T. rubrum when the data from this survey were compared by the goodness of fit test to data of the 1979 to 1981 survey. The percent of dermatophyte isolations identified as T. tonsurans correlated significantly with the percentage of blacks in cities of 100000 or more people.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 30 (1966), S. 41-46 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Intravenous injection of mice with a massive dose ofCoccidioides immitis fungal elements caused a moderate inflammatory response after 6 hours. It was composed of small focal collections of lymphocytes and neutrophils surrounding the rounded fungal elements in the mouse lungs. No further change was noted at 24 hours. Spherules with endospores varying in diameter from 15 to 40μ were seen at 48 and 54 hours. Neutrophils persisted throughout this time and increased only minimally; the lymphocytic response was more marked at these later observations.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of increased temperature during transportation of clinical dermatophyte specimens was investigated. Recovery rates from untransported specimens cultured at dermatologists' offices and from duplicate transported specimens were compared. During the months of hot weather specimens could be exposed intermittently to temperatures as high as 60°C during transportation from Tucson area clinics to the University laboratory. The rates of recovery from known positive specimens were found not to be significantly different at these places regardless whether specimens were transported during the hot months or cooler months of the year. In a controlled experimental approach to the effect of this elevated temperature on clinical specimens weighed amounts of skin scales collected from guinea pigs artificially infected withTrichophyton mentagrophytes were exposed to 60 °C for up to four hours and then digested with 0.5% (1 ∶ 300) trypsin for one hour. Analysis of plate counts done from the digestion mixture showed no significant difference between counts obtained from specimens exposed to elevated temperature and unexposed controls.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A survey of dermatophytes isolated from patients seeking medical advice was made from 1979 to 1981 in the United States. The survey included 54 locations with data from 40 cities and 2 states. Correlations of these data with that of the other localities of the world were made to illustrate the dynamic epidemiology of several common dermatophytes. The most often isolated dermatophyte in this survey was Trichophyton rubrum having 53.66% of the total for these three calendar years. In a chronological listing of ringworm infections caused by this organism, many areas of the world have reported similar increased incidence of this pathogen. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated 27.85% of the total. A dramatic increase of this pathogen as a cause of tinea capitis has been observed in most cities of the United States. It has been isolated in 25 different countries of the world. The percentage of isolation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes was 8.56%. This percentage may not be near the true incidence of infection by this dermatophyte because the infections are mild and respond to treatment without the individual seeking medical advice. Since the 1950s the percentage of isolations of the total has dropped for T. mentagrophytes in the United States. Epidermophyton floccosum accounted for 4.36% of the total. In a few areas of the world it causes over 30% of the total of dermatophytoses. Microsporum canis was isolated 3.72% of the total in the United States. It has recently been reported to be the dominant agent of tinea capitis in several South American countries, Tucson, Arizona and Kuwait. Once the dominant pathogen of tinea capitis in children in the United States, it was replaced by Microsporum audouinii before 1960. Today in the United States, M. audouinii only accounts for 0.30% of the total. It is considered eliminated as a pathogen in England. In this survey, isolated less than 1.0% of the total were Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum ferrugineum, Microsporum nanum, Microsporum fulvum and Trichophyton schoenleinii. Trichophyton meginii and Trichophyton terrestre were reported isolated but no numerical data were available.
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