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  • 1
    Abstract: Post-marketing drug withdrawals can be associated with various events, ranging from safety issues such as reported deaths or severe side-effects, to a multitude of non-safety problems including lack of efficacy, manufacturing, regulatory or business issues. During the last century, the majority of drugs voluntarily withdrawn from the market or prohibited by regulatory agencies was reported to be related to adverse drug reactions. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of toxicity is of utmost importance for current and future drug discovery. Here, we present WITHDRAWN, a resource for withdrawn and discontinued drugs publicly accessible at http://cheminfo.charite.de/withdrawn. Today, the database comprises 578 withdrawn or discontinued drugs, their structures, important physico-chemical properties, protein targets and relevant signaling pathways. A special focus of the database lies on the drugs withdrawn due to adverse reactions and toxic effects. For approximately one half of the drugs in the database, safety issues were identified as the main reason for withdrawal. Withdrawal reasons were extracted from the literature and manually classified into toxicity types representing adverse effects on different organs. A special feature of the database is the presence of multiple search options which will allow systematic analyses of withdrawn drugs and their mechanisms of toxicity.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26553801
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  • 2
    Abstract: A recent study demonstrated antifungal activity of dark chemical matter (DCM) compounds that were otherwise inactive in more than 100 HTS assays. These compounds were proposed to possess unique activity and 'clean' safety profiles. Here, we present an outlook of the promiscuity and safety of these compounds by retrospectively comparing their chemical and biological spaces with those of drugs. Significant amounts of marketed drugs (16%), withdrawn drugs (16.5%) and natural compounds (3.5%) share structural identity with DCM. Compound promiscuity assessment indicates that dark matter compounds could potentially interact with multiple biological targets. Further, thousands of DCM compounds showed presence of frequent-hitting pan-assay interference compound (PAINS) substructures. In light of these observations, filtering these compounds from screening libraries can be an irrevocable loss.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28709991
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  • 3
    Abstract: Regular monitoring of drug regulatory agency web sites and similar resources for information on new drug approvals and changes to legal status of marketed drugs is impractical. It requires navigation through several resources to find complete information about a drug as none of the publicly accessible drug databases provide all features essential to complement in silico drug discovery. Here, we propose SuperDRUG2 (http://cheminfo.charite.de/superdrug2) as a comprehensive knowledge-base of approved and marketed drugs. We provide the largest collection of drugs (containing 4587 active pharmaceutical ingredients) which include small molecules, biological products and other drugs. The database is intended to serve as a one-stop resource providing data on: chemical structures, regulatory details, indications, drug targets, side-effects, physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions. We provide a 3D-superposition feature that facilitates estimation of the fit of a drug in the active site of a target with a known ligand bound to it. Apart from multiple other search options, we introduced pharmacokinetics simulation as a unique feature that allows users to visualise the 'plasma concentration versus time' profile for a given dose of drug with few other adjustable parameters to simulate the kinetics in a healthy individual and poor or extensive metabolisers.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29140469
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