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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: atenolol ; CNS side-effects ; lipophilicity ; metoprolol ; sleep disturbance ; anxiety ; dreaming ; memory ; sexual intercourse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Vivid and bizarre dreams, hallucinations, sleep disturbance and psychosis have all been described following treatment with β-Blockers. It has been suggested that these central nervous system (CNS) side-effects are related to the degree of lipophilicity of the β-blocker. A randomized double-blind crossover study was performed to compare the incidence of CNS side-effects with atenolol and metoprolol in hypertensive patients who had reported CNS side-effects with lipophilic β-Blockers. Eleven women and six men completed the study, in which a 30-item psychiatric questionnaire was used to detect changes in psychological status and possible CNS side-effects. Discontinuation of the original lipophilic β-blocker produced a significant improvement in quality of sleep, dreams, concentration, memory, energy, and anxiety. No significant CNS side-effects were reported with atenolol, but introduction of metoprolol caused a significant increase in the incidence of sleep disturbance (p〈0.01) and restless nights (p〈0.05), as well as failure to achieve satisfactory sexual intercourse (p〈0.05). When compared with atenolol, metoprolol was associated with a significantly higher incidence of restless disturbed nights (p〈0.05). Blood pressure control was identical for both β-Blockers. This study appears to confirm the association between CNS-related side-effects and the lipophilicity of β-Blockers.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of pediatrics 144 (1985), S. 208-208 
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Rice blast ; RFLP ; Retrotransposon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A genetic map of Magnaporthe grisea (anamorph=Pyricularia oryzae and P. grisea), the causal agent of rice blast disease, was generated from segregation data utilizing 97 RFLP markers, two isoenzyme loci and the mating type locus among progeny of a cross between parental strains Guy 11 and 2539. Of the seven chromosomes of M. Grisea, three were resolved by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) electrophoresis, while the remaining four migrated as two doublet bands. By utilizing differences between CHEF mobilities of unresolved chromosomes from the parental strains, Southern analysis with selected markers allowed the chromosomal assignment of all linkage groups. A small translocation involving 1 marker was found in the parental strains used to produce the segregating population from which the map was constructed. Nine classes of repetitive DNA elements were found in the genome of a fungal isolate pathogenic to rice. These occurred only a few times or not at all in the genomes of isolates showing reduced virulence on rice. One repetitive DNA was shown to have structural similarity to the Alu sequences found in primates, a sequence similarity to the copia-like elements of Drosophila, and peptide similarity to transposable elements found in Drosophila, other fungi, and higher plants.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Rice blast ; Magnaporthe grisea Pathogenicity ; Genetic map ; Avirulence gene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Magnaporthe grisea causes rice blast, the most important fungal disease of rice. The segregation of genes controlling virulence of M. grisea on rice was studied to establish the genetic basis of cultivar specificity in this host-parasite interaction. Full-sib progeny and parent isolates Guy11 and 2539 of M. grisea were inoculated onto rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar ‘CO39’ and five near-isogenic lines (NILs) of CO39. Each NIL contained a different single gene affecting resistance to specific isolates of M. grisea. No differential interactions between NILs and progeny or parents were observed; parents and progeny pathogenic on CO39 were pathogenic on all five NILs. Segregation ratios of 101 full-sib progeny, 117 progeny from full-sib parents, and 109 backcross progeny, indicated a common single gene affecting pathogenicity on CO39 and the five NILs. A subset of the above 327 isolates (43 fullsib progeny, 37 progeny from full-sib parents, and 32 backcross progeny) were inoculated onto rice cultivar ‘51583’; all were pathogenic, indicating that cultivar specificity to CO39 was segregating in this population of isolates. The locus controlling cultivar specificity, named avrCO39, was mapped to chromosome 1 using a subset of the progeny previously used to construct an RFLP map of M. grisea. The closest reported RFLP markers were 11.8 (estimated 260 kb) and 17.2 cM (estimated 380 kb) away and provide starting points on either side of the locus for a “chromosome walk” to clone the locus.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Oral diosmin (a benzo-pyrone) was used to treat rats with contused lungs, in doses of 50 or 200 mg/kg/day. The contusion was produced by direct trauma. The lungs were examined with the electron microscope, both qualitatively and quantitatively, at 1, 2 and 4 days. It was found that diosmin considerably reduced interstitial oedema and tissue disorganization. The concentration of protein, both in the interstitial tissue and in the air spaces, was also much reduced. There was a greater effect at the higher dosage than at the lower one. In two other experiments, this drug was used in the usual models of burn oedema of the rat foot and acute lymphoedema of the rat leg-estimating the amount of oedema by weighing the parts. A low dose (50 mg/kg) reduced the burn oedema; a high dose (200 mg/kg) did not. Both doses reduced the acute lymphoedema of the whole leg, or thigh. The high dose did not do this in the foot, but the low one did. At high doses, diosmin has the usual benzo-pyrone property of releasing mediators in the rat-foot. In other tissues (and, no doubt, species) this drug reduces many forms of high-protein oedema, like the other benzo-pyrones.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The Clean Water Act of 1971 directed the Environmental Protection Agency to establish ambient water quality criteria for several classes of elements and compounds, including phthalate esters. Multispecies acute toxicity data are required to develop these criteria. Static bioassay LC50s for butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) for a single species of marine fish based on nominal doses range from 3 mg/L to 440 mg/L. Flow-through bioassays were used in this study of BBP with shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata). Using measured exposure concentrations, 96-hr LC50s averaged 0.51 mg/L. Effects on schooling behavior were found at 0.08 mg/L and coloration at 0.24 mg/L. Coupled with the behavioral changes, reduced brain levels of epinephrine found in surviving fish indicated that the mode of acute toxicity for BBP may be through its effects on the catecholamines of the central adrenergic nervous system.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es wird gezeigt, dass die normale proteolytische Tätigkeit von stimulierten peritonealen Makrophagen der Maus durch das Benzo-pyron-Cumarin in vitro beträchtlich erhöht wird.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary the structure and function of blood capillaries, as related to permeability, depends on tight, close and (in injured vessels) open junctional regions, small vesicles, vacuoles (in injured vessels) and fenestrae. The basement membrane presents a hindrance to the larger macromolecules, at high flow rates, but not to small molecules. The connective tissue channels are probably the paths by which macromolecules, and most of the small ones, pass from the arterial-limbs to the venous ones, and to the lymphatics. In some regions these channels are grouped in special systems: the prelymphatics. The initial lymphatics take up material via open junctions, which close during tissue-compression. The collecting lymphatics retain the lymph because they do not have open junctions. In the close junctional regions the motive force for water flow is the result of Starling's forces; diffusion is very important for other small molecules. The small vesicles transport macromolecules slowly by Brownian motion, as may the vacuoles, but possibly these latter are moved actively. There is much evidence that colloids can develop high effective osmotic pressures even across pores much larger than their molecules, and that proteins can be dragged up a concentration gradient by the resultant fluid flow. On the basis of this, hypotheses have been developed about the functioning of venous-limb fenestrae and the initial lymphatics, for which there is much theoretical, in vitro, and in vivo evidence. Thus, in fenestrae and regions there is held to be a large local circulation through the tissues, of which a quantitatively small, but qualitatively vital, part goes to the lymphatics. Material is considered usually to enter these latter because of the relative concentration of the lymph. It is becoming increasingly evident that in the study of the microvasculature, as with other systems, there is much to be gained by quantifying fine structural observations and by combining and contrasting this data, via physical laws, with that obtained by other methods where the characteristics of whole organs and regions are studied. Thus one can obtain interrelated information, which is not possible by either method alone, and which gives us a vital, comprehensive, perspective of the ways in which whole systems function, and how different systems interact. In this paper I shall show how this approach has yielded much that is new about the functioning of different kinds of blood capillaries, of the tissue channels, of the whole lymphatic system, and of the ways they affect each other.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 38 (1982), S. 1123-1124 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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