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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-0960
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Investigations in New Zealand have shown that animals are an important reservoir of human ringworm. Of 4,328 dermatophytes recovered from human lesions over the six-year period 1963-68, 1,579 (36.5%) were considered to be of animal origin–1,254 (29.0% total) Microsporum canis; 189 (4.4% total) Trichophyton erinacei; 86 (2.0% total) Trichophyton mentagrophytes; 46 (1.1%) Trichophyton verrucosum; 2 Microsporum distortum and 2 Trichophyton equinum var. autotrophicum. Human infection with zoophilic dermatophytes was more pronounced in the younger age groups, showed no marked sex distribution, and usually occurred at only a single exposed site on the body. Apart from the M. canis ringworms which occurred mainly between the months February to August (autumn, winter), no marked seasonal variations were observed.Of the 12 dermatophyte species recovered from 1,290 wild, domestic and laboratory animals examined between 1960-68, only nine were regarded as possessing parasitic properties. These were the zoophilic Microsporum canis, M. distortum, M. nanum, Trichophyton erinacei, T. equinum var. autotrophicum, T. gallinae, T. mentagrophytes, T. verrucosum, and the geophilic M. gypseum. Those regarded as essentially non-pathogenic were the geophilic M. cookei, T. ajelloi and T. terrestre. Apart from T. mentagrophytes which was recovered from a wide variety of animals, the remaining pathogenic dermatophytes displayed marked host specificities. T. mentagrophytes var. quinckeanum was not isolated from any of the human or animal specimens.It is confirmed that, in New Zealand, animals form an important reservoir of human ringworm. Direct contact with small domestic pets rather than larger farm animals is the main source of infection. Of the small wild animals, hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) appear most important.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-0960
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The dermatophyte Microsporum distortum has been recovered from 32 human infections and 7 animals in New Zealand. All cases have occurred within a limited rural area of the Otago province. A comparison of clinical and epidemiological characteristics of M. distortum ringworm with those of Microsporum canis reveals a close similarity between the two fungi. Both show a predilection for the scalp area and have similar age, sex and seasonal distributions. Cats seem to be the main source of human infection, but with M. distortum it is possible that these animals serve merely as a vector between man and some hitherto unidentified (wild) animal reservoir.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 34 (1968), S. 353-358 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The experimental production of mycotic ulceration (in guinea pigs) is recorded for the first time. Prior or concurrent damage to the epithelium of the mucosal membrane appears to be necessary for the establishment of infection. Histologically, lesions produced were similar to those found in spontaneous cases in other animals. It is postulated that mycotic ulcers provide a primary lesion from which fungal elements are disseminated to other organs of the body.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 60 (1977), S. 99-104 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Counterimmunoelectrophoresis ; serology ; Absidia ; Aspergillus ; Candida ; Rhizopus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sera from 35 apparently normal humans, 37 compromised human patients, 30 hedgehogs and 30 sheep, were examined for precipitating antibodies to four opportunistic fungi — Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Rhizopus arrhizus — using Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE). Precipitins to A. fumigatus were almost exclusively confined to specimens obtained from the compromised human group (51% of those examined) while Candida precipitating antibodies were detected in the sera of both normal (26%) and compromised (49%) humans and in 10% of the hedgehog specimens. Serum precipitins against the two phycomycetes included in the investigations were rare. Because of the complexity of most fungal antigen extracts, it appears essential that sera be tested against a number of different antigen concentrations if CIE is to be used with confidence in fungal serology.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 81 (1983), S. 71-76 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract By means of an experimental guinea pig model, the immunogenicities of a live spore vaccine, a killed hyphal cell wall vaccine and a soluble cytoplasmic extract vaccine of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei were compared, and their modifying influence on the infectivity and duration of experimental dermatophyte lesions examined. Of the three vaccines, the live-spore one was the most effective and closely simulated the type of immunity which develops following a natural infection. Lesions produced in cell wall vaccinated animals revealed significantly less infectivity and were reduced in duration as compared with lesions in unvaccinated animals. The cytoplasmic extract vaccine had no beneficial effect on the course of experimental infection; indeed it seemed to increase the infectivity of lesions. Acquired resistance to reinfection in a pregnant guinea pig was not passed on to the offspring. Significant levels (titer of ⩾1∶16) of antibody were detected in the sera of all infected and vaccinated animals using an indirect fluorescent antibody technique and germling antigens. Using counterimmunoelectrophoresis, precipitating antibodies were detectable in the sera of all seven animals vaccinated with the cell wall or cytoplasmic extract, in one (20%) of the control animals after reinfection, and none of the four animals injected subcutaneously with the live spore vaccine. Thus no correlation between antibody titer and the severity and duration of lesions was observed. These results endorse the growing hypothesis that cell mediated immunity is of prime importance in protection again dermatophyte invasion and suggests that prophylactic vaccination procedures are worthy of further evaluation in lower animals.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 34 (1968), S. 323-336 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Oberflächenstruktur der Konidien und Arthrosporen vonMicrosporon racemosum undTrichophyton erinacei sind beschrieben. Abgesehen von den Makrokonidien vonMicrosporon zeigten die Oberflächen der Sporen geringe oder keine Ornamentation. Die Anordnung der Warzen an der Oberfläche von Makrosporenkonidien erscheint wechselvoll und sie mag von geringer Wichtigkelt sein, außer der Charakterisierung der Gattung.
    Notes: Abstract The surface structure of conidia and arthrospores ofMicrosporon 2)racemosum andTrichophyton winacei is described. Apart fromMicrosporon macroconidia, the spore surfaces displayed little or no ornamentation. The arrangement of verrucae on the surface ofMicrosporon conidia appears to be variable, but may be of little taxonomic importance other than as a characteristic of the genus.
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