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  • 1
    ISSN: 1824-3096
    Keywords: migration matrices ; parish registers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Anglican marriage registers are the only source to allow a comprehensive survey of migration rates in England from the sixteenth century to the present day. However, a comparison with estimates from annotated baptismal registers shows them consistently to underestimate the amount of migration. A method is proposed which may compensate for such bias in an observed matrix of migration.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-3521
    Keywords: chronic pain ; sleep quality ; presleep arousal ; insomnia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Abstract This study was designed (1) to characterize the extent and nature of sleep complaints of chronic pain patients and (2) to examine the factors that predict sleep quality. A heterogeneous sample of 51 outpatients with benign, chronic pain was recruited from newspaper and pain clinic advertisements. Patients completed a variety of self-report instruments including the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Sleep complaints were reported by 88% of the sample. Presleep cognitive arousal, rather than pain severity, was found to be the primary predictor of sleep quality.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: Lepidoptera ; Tortricidae ; Olethreutinae ; Cydia caryana ; sex pheromone ; electroantennogram ; flight tunnel ; behavior
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Les réponses olfactives antennaires de Cydia caryana, mesurées par électroantennogrammes (EAG), aux alcools et acétates à carbones monounsaturés en positions 12 et 14, ont montré que le système conjugué de double liaison, (E)-8-, (E)-10- du dodecadien-1-ol acétate constitue un composé chimique strutural critique de la phéromone sexuelle de C. caryana. De plus, les acétates: (E)-8-dodecen-1-ol,(Z)-8-dodecen-1-ol,(Z)-9-dodecen-1-ol, et le (Z)-12-tetradecen-1-ol, se sont révélés en AEG comme des composés secondaires de la phéromone. L'étude par AEG de la relation dose-réponse a conduit à l'hypothèse de deux catégories de populations de récepteurs de phéromones. L'analyse comportementale des résponses des papillons mâles dans le tunnel de vol aux composés qui ont provoqués les plus forts AEG, on fait estimer que les acétates (E,E)-8,10-dodécadien-1-ol et (Z)-9-dodecen-1-ol ressemblent (ou sont) les constituants de la phéromone sexuelle de C. caryana; tandis que les (Z)-8-dodecen-1-ol et (E)-10-dodecen-1-ol sont, soit des paraphéromones, soit des constituants mineurs de la phéromone. La signification biologique du (Z)-12-tétradécen-1-ol a été difficile à interprêter avec les expériences en tunnel de vol.
    Notes: Abstract Electroantennogram (EAG) measurement of male Cydia caryana moth antennal olfactory response to monounsaturated 12 and 14 carbon alcohols and acetates indicated that the (E)-8-, (E)-10- conjugated double bond system of a dodecadien-1-ol acetate is a critical chemical structural component of the C. caryana sex pheromone. Additionally, EAG measurements implicated (E)-8-dodecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-8-dodecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-9-dodecen-1-ol acetate and (Z)-12-tetradecen-1-ol as potential minor pheromonal components. An EAG dosage-response study suggested that there were at least two heterologous populations of pheromone acceptors. Behavioral analysis of male moth response in a flight tunnel to compounds which evoked the stronger EAG responses suggested that (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol acetate and (Z)-9-dodecen-1-ol acetate resemble or are C. caryana sex pheromonal components, while (Z)-8-dodecen-1-ol acetate and (E)-10-dodecen-1-ol acetate are either parapheromones or are minor pheromone components. Behavioral significance of (Z)-12-tetradecen-1-ol was difficult to interpret in the flight tunnel.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Keywords: Keywords: spent sulphite liquor; ethanol fermentation; cellulose hydrolysis; S. cerevisiae; S. uvarum; S. diastaticus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Ethanol production from spent sulphite pulping liquor (SSL) was compared for four different yeasts. A second strain of S. cerevisiae as well as a 2-deoxyglucose-resistant strain formed through protoplast fusions between S. uvarum and S. diastaticus produced up to 27% more ethanol from SSL fortified with hydrolysis sugars than was produced by S. cerevisiae. The incremental improvement in ethanol yield appeared to vary with the degree of fortification, ranging from 5.8% for unfortified SSL, to 27% for the highest level of fortification tested. Decreasing fermentation rates were observed for SSL fortified with glucose, mannose and galactose, respectively. Sugar uptake rates in SSL fortified with glucose, galactose and mannose were 6.8, 2.8 and 2.0 g L−1 h−1, respectively. However, when these sugars were fermented along with a glucose cosubstrate, the rate at which the combined glucose/mannose medium was fermented was nearly identical to that of the glucose control.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Keywords: Myxozyma vanderwaltii ; Candidaceae ; yeasts ; taxonomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Three strains of an undescribed species of the genusMyxozyma were recovered. The new species differs from other accepted species of the genus in its assimilation pattern of carbon sources, mol% G + C and low DNA-DNA homology. A description of the new species,Myxozyma vanderwaltii, and a key to the species accepted in the genus are given.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Electroantennogram ; pheromone ; bark beetles ; Ips, Dendroctonus ; Coleoptera ; Scolytidae ; olfactory receptors ; intraspecific ; interspecific ; electrophysiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Electroantennograms (EAGs) from male and femaleIps avulsus, I. calligraphus, andI. grandicollis to their pheromones and selected host odorants or kairomones verified the presence of antennal olfactory receptors in both sexes of each species capable of detecting ipsdienol, ipsenol,cis- andtrans-verbenol,endo-brevicomin α-pinene, frontalin, and verbenone. Each species possesses receptors with lower thresholds and in greater abundance for the compounds they produce and to which they are behaviorally most responsive. Detection of bothIps andDendroctonus pheromones by the three cohabiting species provides a sensory basis for olfactory interactions among the species. Differences in both threshold and saturation levels for EAGs for the various behavioral chemicals could denote differences in specific behavioral roles for each compound.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Coleoptera ; Scolytidae ; bark beetle ; Dendroctonus ; Ips ; pheromone ; olfaction ; intraspecific ; interspecific ; behavior
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Olfactory-mediated behavioral interactions were investigated among the five scolytid species comprising the southern pine bark beetle group. Behavioral response, as determined from field trap catch data, showed that each species was attracted in greatest numbers to the pheromonal blend produced by conspecifies. Interspecifically,D. frontalis displayed no cross-attractancy toIps pheromonal blends, but was weakly attracted to the pheromonal blend of femaleD. terebrans. ThreeIps species displayed varying degrees of cross-attraction as well as to theDendroctonus pheromonal blends. More specifically,I. calligraphus was attracted toI. avulsus and, to a very limited extent, also to the maleD. terebrans pheromonal blend.I. avulsus was somewhat more cross-attractive thanI. calligraphus and showed attraction to the pheromonal blends of femaleD. frontalis, male and femaleD. terebrans, maleI. calligraphus, and maleI. grandicollis. I. grandicollis showed the greatest degree of cross-attraction, particularly in response to theDendroctonus pheromonal blends.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Sex pheromone ; sex attractant ; Cydia caryana ; Lepidoptera ; Tortricidae ; Olethreutinae ; (Z)-8-dodecen-1-ol acetate ; (E)-9-dodecen-1-ol acetate ; dodecanol acetate ; (E, E)-8 ; 10-dodecadien-1-ol acetate ; (E, Z)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol acetate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Extracts of the sex pheromone glands of femaleCydia caryana were evaluated by electroantennography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These studies suggested the following compounds were potential sex pheromone components: (Z)-8- and/or (E)-9-dodecenyl acetate (50 pg/female), dodecyl acetate (40 pg/female), and (E, E)-8,10-dodecadienyl acetate (25 pg/female). In field tests only the diene produced trap catch, and when the other components were added to the diene, trap catch was not increased. When the diene was formulated in red natural rubber septa, only transient and low catches were obtained, but when gray halobutyl isoprene elastomeric septa were used, high and consistent catches were obtained for eight weeks. Catches depended on the ratio of (E, E)-8,10 to (E, Z)-8,10 isomers. High catches were obtained for anEE toEZ ratio of 100 ∶ 0.6, and insignificant catches were obtained when the ratio was 100 ∶ 3. Equivalent catches were obtained for dosages of 50, 100, and 200 μg/septum.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: prazepam ; N-desmethyldiazepam ; bioavailability ; pharmokinetics ; electron-capture gasliquid chromatography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary An original electron-capture gas chromatographic assay was developed for simultaneous measurement of plasma levels of the benzodiazepine derivative prazepam and of its principal unconjugated metabolite, N-desmethyldiazepam. The assay was used to study the pharmacokinetics of the drug and its comparative bioavailability from tablets and from a specially prepared solution. Nine healthy adult volunteers were studied. Each volunteer on one occasion took 30 mg of the drug in tablet form, and on another occasion 30 mg of the drug in solution. In all subjects, N-desmethyldiazepam appeared in plasma shortly after prazepam appeared and reached a peak within four hours of prazepam ingestion. Thereafter plasma N-desmethyldiazepam levels were much higher than plasma prazepam levels throughout. Prazepam became undetectable within six hours of intake, whereas its metabolite could still be measured in plasma fourteen days after dosage. Thus much of the pharmacological action of prazepam may be mediated through its metabolite, N-desmethyldiazepam. In five of the nine subjects, areas under the plasma level curves for the metabolite were not markedly different for the tablet and solution formulations studied. In the other four subjects the area under the curve for the tablets was 50% to 80% of the area under the curve for the solution. The time to reach peak plasma level for the metabolite was shorter after the solution formulation (mean 2.0±SD 1.2 h) than after the tablet formulation (mean 4.2±SD 1.7 h).
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: unsteady model ; pharmacokinetic model ; nonlinear ; simulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In this paper an alternative approach to nonlinear pharmacokinetic modelling has been developed from first principles. This “Unsteady Model” is able to describe the situation whereby one or more independent drugs and their metabolites compete for free attachment sites in liver, tissue, red blood cells etc. The Unsteady model collapses to well-known existing models viz.: Michaelis-Menten, Langmuir tissue binding and the linear compartment models, under certain well-defined, limiting conditions. The Unsteady model and its collapse to existing models is derived mathematically and illustrated with simulations. For several reasons the Unsteady model would appear to have many advantages and wide application.
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