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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: antidepressant ; bupropion ; pharmacokinetics ; oral administration ; radioimmunoassay ; urinary excretion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pharmacokinetics of bupropion hydrochloride, a structurally novel antidepressant agent, have been studied in healthy male and female subjects following administration of single oral doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg. Plasma drug concentrations were determined directly by a specific radioimmunoassay (r. i. a.), while urinary measurements required a prior solvent extraction to remove substances interfering in the assay. Bupropion appeared rapidly in the plasma, suggesting good absorption. Drug plasma concentration-time data were fitted well to a two-compartment open model of drug disposition by use of the computer program NONLIN. By comparison of AUC, Cmax and tmax values, the pharmacokinetics of bupropion were found to be linear across the 50–200 mg dose range in both sexes. When the data were normalized for subjects' body weights, no differences between pharmacokinetic parameters for male and female subjects were found. Mean disposition half-lives across treatments were 1.2–1.4 h for t1 2α and 10.7–13.8 h for the t1 2β. Bupropion was extensively bound (85%) to human plasma proteins over a wide drug concentration range. Less than 1% of a 200 mg oral dose of bupropion hydrochloride appeared in the urine of 16 subjects as unchanged drug, indicating extensive metabolism of the parent compound.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Key words Pediatrics ; Intensive care unit ; Mechanical ventilation ; Extubation outcome ; Pressure ratio
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract   Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of the initial negative inspiratory pressure (PI) to maximal negative inspiratory pressure (PImax) ratio in predicting extubation outcome for intubated infants and children. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Pediatric intensive care unit. Patients: A sample of 50 stable intubated pediatric patients who were judged clinically ready for extubation. Methods: Using a one-way valve, PI and PImax were measured in all patients, after which the ≦ratio PI/PImax was calculated and its accuracy in predicting extubation outcome evaluated. Measurements and results: A total of 39 patients (78%) were successfully extubated and 11 patients (22%) were not. The mean PI/PImax ratio was not significantly different between extubation successes (0.36±0.14) and failures (0.45±0.1) (P〉0.05). The cut-off value of 0.3 for PI/PImax identified in adult patients did not discriminate between extubation success and failure in children. Furthermore, a discriminatory cut-off value other than 0.3 could not be identified for infants and children. Conclusion: The PI/PImax ratio cannot be used to predict extubation outcome in pediatric patients. Indices that predict extubation outcome in adults should not be extrapolated to infants and children before testing and validation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Pediatrics ; Intensive care unit ; Mechanical ventilation ; Extubation outcome ; Pressure ratio
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective To evaluate the accuracy of the initial negative inspiratory pressure (PI) to maximal negative inspiratory pressure (PImax) ratio in predicting extubation outcome for intubated infants and children. Design A prospective study. Setting: Pediatric intensive care unit. Patients A sample of 50 stable intubated pediatric patients who were judged clinically ready for extubation. Methods Using a one-way valve,PI andPImax were measured in all patients, after which the ≦ ratioPI/PImax was calculated and its accuracy in predicting extubation outcome evaluated. Measurements and results A total of 39 patients (78%) were successfully extubated and 11 patients (22%) were not. The meanPI/PImax ratio was not significantly different between extubation successes (0.36±0.14) and failures (0.45±0.1) (P〉0.05). The cut-off value of 0.3 forPI/PImax identified in adult patients did not discriminate between extubation success and failure in children. Furthermore, a discriminatory cut-off value other than 0.3 could not be identified for infants and children. Conclusion ThePI/PImax ratio cannot be used to predict extubation outcome in pediatric patients. Indices that predict extubation outcome in adults should not be extrapolated to infants and children before testing and validation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetes ; juvenile ; incidence ; Scotland ; seasonal variation ; population density ; age of onset
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A computer file of all Scottish hospital admissions in the period 1968–1976 was searched to identify the 2,505 children (aged 〈 19 years) with a diagnosis of diabetes. The average annual incidence of the disease (based on first hospital admission) was estimated to be 13.8 per 100,000 children aged 〈 19 years (boys 14.4 per 100,000; girls 13.2 per 100,000). The highest incidence, 20.0 per 100,000 was in the age group 10–14 years and the lowest 7.1 per 100,000 in those aged 〈 5 years. It is estimated that during the study period there was an 80% increase in the annual incidence of juvenile diabetes, from about 10 per 100,000 in 1968 to about 18 per 100,000 in 1976. First admission rates showed seasonal variations for those aged 5 years or more, with peaks in October/November and January/February. Marked variation was found in the incidence rates in the different counties of Scotland. The central lowlands which includes the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow was an area of low incidence. There appeared to be an inverse correlation between the incidence rate in each county and population density. In Glasgow, there was an inverse association between the incidence rate in each city ward and the average number of persons per room. There was no evidence of space-clustering of the disease in different years within the parishes (rural districts) of each county and there was no convincing evidence that the variation in the incidence of diabetes between parishes in the same county was more than might have been expected to arise by chance. The observations are compatible with the disease having a viral aetiology but it is difficult to explain the striking rise in incidence over the study period on this basis.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Estrogen affects many aspects of the nervous system, including pain sensitivity and neural regulation of vascular function. We have shown that estrogen elevation increases sensory nociceptor innervation of arterioles in Sprague–Dawley rat mammary gland, external ear and mesentery, suggesting widespread effects on sensory vasodilatory innervation. However, it is unclear whether estrogen elicits nociceptor hyperinnervation by promoting target release of neurotrophic factors, or by direct effects on sensory neurons. To determine if estrogen may promote axon sprouting by increasing release of target-derived diffusible factors, dorsal root ganglia explants were co-cultured with mesenteric arterioles for 36 h in the absence or presence of 17β-estradiol (E2). Mesenteric arteriolar target substantially increased neurite outgrowth from explanted ganglia, but estrogen had no effect on outgrowth, suggesting that estrogen does not increase the availability of trophic proteins responsible for target-induced neurite outgrowth. To assess the direct effects of estrogen, dissociated neonatal dorsal root ganglion neurons were cultured for 3 days in the absence or presence of E2 and nerve growth factor (NGF; 1–10 ng/mL), and immunostained for the nociceptor markers peripherin or calcitonin gene-related peptide. NGF increased neuron size, survival and numbers of neurons with neurites, but did not affect neurite area per neuron. Estrogen did not affect neuron survival, size or numbers of neurons with neurites, but did increase neurite area per neuron. The effects of these agents were not synergistic. We conclude that estrogen exerts direct effects on nociceptor neurons to promote axon outgrowth, and this occurs through an NGF-independent mechanism.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Sympathetic innervation of the adult rodent uterus undergoes cyclic remodelling. Terminal sympathetic axons degenerate when oestrogen levels rise and regenerate when oestrogen levels decline. This study examined the role of neurotrophins in oestrogen-mediated uterine sympathetic nerve remodelling. Oestrogen injection of ovariectomized female rats did not affect uterine NT-3 levels 24 h postinjection, and increased endometrial NGF protein, indicating that reduced NGF or NT-3 is not responsible for the oestrogen-induced denervation. Oestrogen also raised BDNF protein and mRNA in myometrium and endometrium. To assess whether increased BDNF affects uterine receptivity to sympathetic outgrowth, sympathetic ganglion explants were co-cultured with myometrium. Myometrium from ovariectomized rats induced neuritogenesis in oestrogen-free conditions, and this was abolished when BDNF was added to the medium. Neuritogenesis induced by ovariectomized myometrium was suppressed by oestrogen, and restored by a BDNF function-blocking antibody. To determine if target BDNF synthesis is required for oestrogen to suppress sympathetic neurite outgrowth, uteri from wild-type mice and mice homozygous or heterozygous for recombinant mutations of the BDNF gene were cultured with rat sympathetic ganglia. Neuritogenesis induced by wild-type uteri was diminished by oestrogen. Neurite formation in the presence of homozygous BDNF mutant uteri was not affected by oestrogen, but was lower than that of wild-type mice. Uteri from mice heterozygous for the BDNF mutation, who have reduced BDNF synthesis, showed normal neuritogenic properties, but were not affected by oestrogen. These findings suggest that oestrogen alters neuritogenic properties of the rodent uterus by regulating BDNF synthesis, which inhibits sympathetic neurite outgrowth.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 60 (1989), S. 281-283 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: We describe a phase-locking circuit which we have used to phase lock a cw mode-locked Nd:YAG which synchronously pumps a tunable dye laser with a mode-locked, Q-switched, cavity dumped Nd:YAG laser which is used to amplify the dye laser output. Though both lasers are free running, the phase locker maintains the timing jitter at less than 20 ps.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A varying refractive index across a wavefront leads to a change in the direction of propagation of the wave,. This provides the basis for phase-contrast imaging of transparent or weakly absorbing materials with highly coherent X-ray beams,. Lattice distortions can also change the direction of ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 385 (1997), S. 197-198 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Since the description often cases of a new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the United Kingdom in March 1996 (refs 1,2), four more UK cases and one French case have been confirmed3. It remains unknown whether the 'new form' of CJD is due to human infection with the agent responsible ...
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