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  • 1
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hormone and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptors are the most important breast cancer biomarkers, and additional objective and quantitative test methods such as messenger RNA (mRNA)-based quantitative analysis are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the clinical validity of RT-PCR-based evaluation of estrogen receptor (ESR1) and HER2 mRNA expression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1050 core biopsies from two retrospective (GeparTrio, GeparQuattro) and one prospective (PREDICT) neoadjuvant studies were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR for ESR1 and HER2. RESULTS: ESR1 mRNA was significantly predictive for reduced response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in univariate and multivariate analysis in all three cohorts. The complete pathologically documented response (pathological complete response, pCR) rate for ESR1+/HER2- tumors was 7.3%, 8.0% and 8.6%; for ESR1-/HER2- tumors it was 34.4%, 33.7% and 37.3% in GeparTrio, GeparQuattro and PREDICT, respectively (P 〈 0.001 in each cohort). In the Kaplan-Meier analysis in GeparTrio patients with ESR1+/HER2- tumors had the best prognosis, compared with ESR1-/HER2- and ESR1-/HER2+ tumors [disease-free survival (DFS): P 〈 0.0005, overall survival (OS): P 〈 0.0005]. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that mRNA levels of ESR1 and HER2 predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and are significantly associated with long-term outcome. As an additional option to standard immunohistochemistry and gene-array-based analysis, quantitative RT-PCR analysis might be useful for determination of the receptor status in breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23131391
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  • 2
    Abstract: PURPOSE: We elucidated the value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) as an independent predictor for pathologic complete response (pCR) rate and as a prognostic marker for disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer in the neoadjuvant setting. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated stromal TILs in 498 HER2-positive breast cancer samples of the neoadjuvant GeparQuattro (G4) and GeparQuinto (G5) trials. Levels of TILs were determined as a continuous parameter per 10% increase and as lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer (LPBC; 〉/= 60% TILs), and correlated with pCR rate and DFS. RESULTS: In the complete cohort, HER2-positive LPBC cases had a significantly increased pCR rates compared with non-LPBC types. They were significant predictors for pCR in univariate (10% TILs: OR 1.12, P = 0.002; LPBC: OR 2.02, P = 0.002) and multivariate analyses (10% TILs: OR 1.1, P = 0.014; LPBC: OR 1.87, P = 0.009). This effect was also detectable in the trastuzumab-treated (10% TILs: OR 1.12, P = 0.018; LPBC: OR 2.08, P = 0.013) but not in the lapatinib-treated subgroup. We identified a low-risk (pCR/LPBC) and a high-risk group (no pCR/no LPBC) regarding DFS. In triple-positive breast cancer, TILs are of more prognostic relevance than pCR. CONCLUSIONS: We could demonstrate the predictive and prognostic impact of TILs in HER2-positive breast cancer in the neoadjuvant setting. In combination with pCR rate, TILs may help to stratify prognostic subgroups, thereby guiding future therapy decisions. Clin Cancer Res; 22(23); 5747-54. (c)2016 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27189162
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  • 3
    Abstract: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a central predictive biomarker in breast cancer. Inaccurate HER2 results in different laboratories could be as high as 20%. However, this statement is based on data generated more than 13 years ago and may not reflect the standards of modern diagnostic pathology. We compared central and local HER2 testing in a total of 1581 HER2-positive tumors from five clinical trials. We evaluated the clinical relevance for pathological complete response (pCR) and disease-free survival in a subgroup of 677 tumors, which received an anti-HER2 therapy. Over the period of 12 years, the discordance rate for HER2 decreased from 52.4 (GeparTrio) to 8.4% (GeparSepto). Discordance rates were significantly higher in hormone receptor (HR)-positive tumors (26.6%), compared to HR-negative tumors (16.3%, P〈0.0001), which could be explained by a different distribution of HER2 mRNA levels in HR-positive and HR-negative tumors. pCR rates were significantly lower in discordant tumors (13.7%) compared to concordant tumors (32.2%, GeparQuattro and GeparQuinto, P〈0.001). In survival analysis, tumors with discordant HER2 testing had a reduced overall survival (OS) in the HR-negative group (P=0.019) and a trend for improved OS in the HR-positive group (P=0.125). The performance of local HER2 testing was considerably improved over time and has reached a 92% concordance, which shows that quality initiatives in diagnostic pathology are working. Tumors with discordant HER2 testing had a reduced therapy response and different survival rates.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29271415
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  • 4
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; INHIBITOR ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; carcinoma ; THERAPY ; tumor growth ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; TUMORS ; radiation ; FAMILY ; MEMBER ; BREAST ; TARGET ; MOUSE ; APOPTOTIC CHANGES ; Bak ; BAX ; BREAST-CARCINOMA ; CHROMATIN PROTEIN ; CYTOCHROME-C ; DNA-BINDING DOMAIN ; ENHANCES BINDING ; FISSION YEAST ; GENETIC-ANALYSIS ; high-mobility group box protein ; MAMMALIAN-CELLS ; MITOCHONDRIA ; SCHIZOSACCHAROMYCES-POMBE
    Abstract: Apoptosis is a fundamental biological process used to eliminate unwanted cells in a multicellular organism. An increasing number of regulatory proteins have been identified that either promote or inhibit apoptosis. For tumors to arise, apoptosis must be blocked in the transformed cells, for example by mutational overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins, which represent attractive target proteins for molecular therapy strategies. In a functional yeast survival screen designed to select new anti-apoptotic mammalian genes, we have identified the chromosomal high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) as an inhibitor of yeast cell death induced by the pro-apoptotic Bcl- 2 family member Bak. The C-terminal 33 amino acids of HMGB1 are dispensable for this inhibitory function. HMGB1 is also able to protect mammalian cells against different death stimuli including ultraviolet radiation, CD95-, TRAIL-, Casp-8-, and Bax-induced apoptosis. We found high HMGB1 protein levels in human primary breast carcinoma. Hmgb1 RNA levels are changing during different stages of mouse mammary gland development and are particularly low during lactation and involution. These data suggest that HMGB1 may participate in the regulation of mammary gland apoptosis and that its high expression level promotes tumor growth because of its anti-apoptotic properties
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12759333
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  • 5
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Recent data suggest that benefit from trastuzumab and chemotherapy might be related to expression of HER2 and estrogen receptor (ESR1). Therefore, we investigated HER2 and ESR1 mRNA levels in core biopsies of HER2-positive breast carcinomas from patients treated within the neoadjuvant GeparQuattro trial. METHODS: HER2 levels were centrally analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), silver in situ hybridization (SISH) and qRT-PCR in 217 pretherapeutic formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) core biopsies. All tumors had been HER2-positive by local pathology and had been treated with neoadjuvant trastuzumab/ chemotherapy in GeparQuattro. RESULTS: Only 73% of the tumors (158 of 217) were centrally HER2-positive (cHER2-positive) by IHC/SISH, with cHER2-positive tumors showing a significantly higher pCR rate (46.8% vs. 20.3%, P 〈0.0005). HER2 status by qRT-PCR showed a concordance of 88.5% with the central IHC/SISH status, with a low pCR rate in those tumors that were HER2-negative by mRNA analysis (21.1% vs. 49.6%, P 〈0.0005). The level of HER2 mRNA expression was linked to response rate in ESR1-positive tumors, but not in ESR1-negative tumors. HER2 mRNA expression was significantly associated with pCR in the HER2-positive/ESR1-positive tumors (P = 0.004), but not in HER2-positive/ESR1-negative tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Only patients with cHER2-positive tumors - irrespective of the method used - have an increased pCR rate with trastuzumab plus chemotherapy. In patients with cHER2-negative tumors the pCR rate is comparable to the pCR rate in the non-trastuzumab treated HER-negative population. Response to trastuzumab is correlated to HER2 mRNA levels only in ESR1-positive tumors. This study adds further evidence to the different biology of both subsets within the HER2-positive group.Introduction The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is the prototype of a predictive biomarker for targeted treatment 12345678. International initiatives have established the combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization as the current gold standard 910. As an additional approach determination of HER2 mRNA expression is technically feasible in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue 111213. Crosstalk between the estrogen receptor (ER) and the HER2 pathway has been suggested based on cell culture and animal models 14. Consequently, the 2011 St Gallen panel has pointed out that HER2-positive tumors should be divided into two groups based on expression of the ER 15.A retrospective analysis of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B31 study has suggested that mRNA levels of HER2 and ESR1 might be relevant for the degree of benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab. By subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot (STEPP) analysis in ER-positive tumors, benefit from trastuzumab was shown to be restricted to those with higher levels of HER2 mRNA (S Paik, personal communication, results summarized in 15).In our study we evaluated this hypothesis in the neoadjuvant setting in a cohort of 217 patients from the neoadjuvant GeparQuattro trial 5. All patients had been HER2- positive by local pathology assessment and had received 24 to 36 weeks of neoadjuvant trastuzumab plus an anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy. For central evaluation we used three different methods, HER2 IHC, and HER2 silver in situ hybridization (SISH), as well as measurement of HER2 mRNA by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR 11.The primary objective of this analysis was to investigate if pathological complete response (pCR) rate in HER2-positive breast cancer would depend on the level of HER2 mRNA expression, with a separate analysis for HR-positive and -negative tumors. Central evaluation of the HER2 status showed that 27% of the tumors with HER2 overexpression by local pathology were HER2-negative. This enabled us to compare response rates in patients with HER2-positive and -negative tumors as a secondary objective.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23391338
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