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  • 1
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; CELL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; TOXICITY ; SYSTEM ; DEATH ; NF-KAPPA-B ; ACTIVATION ; DNA ; 3-aminobenzanthrone ; 3-nitrobenzanthrone ; CARCINOGENESIS ; DIESEL EXHAUST ; ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT 3-NITROBENZANTHRONE ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; cytokines ; MOUSE ; CELL-DEATH ; genetics ; DAMAGE ; HUMAN ACETYLTRANSFERASES ; METABOLIC-ACTIVATION ; POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS ; DNA-DAMAGE ; NETHERLANDS ; TRANSLOCATION ; FLOW-CYTOMETRY ; AKT ; CYTOKINE ; MAPK ; SCIENCE ; ADDUCT FORMATION ; cell death ; DNA damage ; DNA ADDUCT ; ERK ; CARCINOGEN 3-NITROBENZANTHRONE ; AIR-POLLUTANT 3-NITROBENZANTHRONE ; Genetic ; IMMUNE ; 3-Ammobenzanthrone ; LUNG EPITHELIAL-CELLS
    Abstract: 3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental pollutant found in diesel exhaust and urban air pollution. In the present work we have characterised the effects of 3-NBA and its metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) on cell death and cytokine release in mouse hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells. These effects were related to induced DNA damage and changes in cell signalling pathways. 3-NBA resulted in cell death and caused most DNA damage as judged by the amount of DNA adducts (P-32-postlabelling assay), single strand (ss)DNA breaks and oxidative DNA lesions (comet assay) detected. An increased phosphorylation of H2AX, chk1, chk2 and partly ATM was observed using flow cytometry and/or Western blotting. Both compounds increased phosphorylation of p53 and MAPKs (ERK, p38 and JNK). However, only 3-NBA caused an accumulation of p53 in the nucleus and a translocation of Bax to the mitochondria. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-alpha inhibited 3-NBA-induced apoptosis, indicating that cell death was a result of the triggering of DNA signalling pathways. The highest phosphorylation of Akt and degradation of I kappa B-alpha (suggesting activation of NF-kappa B) were also seen after treatment with 3-NBA. In contrast 3-ABA increased IL-6 release, but caused little or no toxicity. Cytokine release was inhibited by PD98059 and curcumin, suggesting that ERK and NF-kappa B play a role in this process. in conclusion, 3-NBA seems to have a higher potency to induce DNA damage compatible with its cytotoxic effects, while 3-ABA seems to have a greater effect on the immune system. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19941874
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé De 1976 à 1979, 75 malades (âge moyen: 77 ans) présentant des calculs dans la voie biliaire principale et leur vésicule in situ ont été traités par papillotomie endoscopique. La sphinctérotomie fut réalisée dans tous les cas mais quatre malades durent être opérés, les calculs n'ayant pu être extraits chez eux. Le taux des complications s'est élevé à 13.3% et un malade décéda. Un malade dut subir une cholécystectomie une semaine après la papillotomie en raison de la progression de la cholécystite. Un malade dut subir le drainage d'un abcès et l'ablation de la vésicule mais elle mourut une semaine après l'opération. Au cours d'une période de 5–8 ans suivant la sphinctérotomie endoscopique, 12 patients ont été cholécystectomisés: 7 en raison d'une cholécystite aiguë et 3 en raison de cures douloureuses. Chez 2 malades la cholécystectomie fut pratiquée au cours d'une intervention intercurrente. Trente malade moururent tous d'une autre affection à l'exception de l'un d'eux qui décéda à la suite d'un cancer de la vésicule. Trois malades qui présentèrent une cholécystite aiguë furent traités médicalement. Après 5 ans, 28 malades ayant gardé leur vésicule étaient encore en vie sans présenter de signes vésiculaires. Au total 13 patients (17.3%) furent traités pur cholécystite aiguë pendant un suivi de 5–8 ans.
    Abstract: Resumen Setenta y ocho pacientes (edad promedio 77 años) con cálculos en el colédoco y la vesfcula biliar in situ fueron tratados con papilotomía endoscópica (PTE) durante el pen'odo 1976–1979. El procedimiento endoscópico fué exitoso en la totalidad de los pacientes, pero 4 tuvieron que ser operados debido a que el cálculo en el colédoco no pasó. La tasa de complicaciones fué de 13.3% y un paciente falleció. Un paciente hubo de ser sometido a colecistectomía dentro de la semana siguiente a la PTE debido a progresión de su colecistitis. Otro paciente fué sometido a drenaje, por absceso hepático perforado, y colecistectomía; murió una semana después de la operación. En el periodo de seguimiento de 5–8 anos, 12 pacientes fueron sometidos a colecistectomfa: 7 por colecistitis aguda y 3 por ataques recurrentes de dolor. En 2 casos la operación fué hecha como procedimiento incidental. Treinta pacientes fallecieron, todos debido a otras enfermedades, excepto uno que murió por carcinoma de la vesícula biliar 1 1/2 años después de la PTE. Très fueron tratados en forma conservadora por colecistitis aguda. A los 5 años, 28 pacientes estaban vivos con su vesfcula biliar in situ y ninguno exhibía síntomas relativos a la vesícula. En total, 13 pacientes (17.3%) fueron tratados por colecistitis aguda en el perfodo de 5–8 años de observación.
    Notes: Abstract Seventy-five patients (mean age, 77 years) with common duct stones and the gallbladder in situ were treated with primary endoscopic papillotomy (EPT) during the period 1976–1979. The endoscopic procedure was successful in all patients, but 4 patients had to be operated on since the common duct stone did not pass. The complication rate was 13.3% and 1 patient died. One patient was operated on with cholecystectomy within a week after EPT because of progression of his cholecystitis. Another patient was operated on with drainage for perforated liver abscesses and cholecystectomy; she also died 1 week after operation. In the follow-up period of 5–8 years, 12 patients were operated on with cholecystectomy: 7 patients because of acute cholecystitis, and 3 patients because of recurrent pain attacks. In 2 patients, the operation was done electively. Thirty patients died, all from other diseases except 1 patient who died from a gallbladder carcinoma 1 1/2 years after EPT. Three patients were treated conservatively for acute cholecystitis. After 5 years, 28 patients were still alive with the gallbladder in situ and none had symptoms from the gallbladder. Altogether, 13 (17.3%) patients were treated for acute cholecystitis during the 5–8-year follow-up period.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence induction ; irradiance ; oxygen evolution ; phellem ; photosystem 2 ; poplar ; quantum yield ; seasonal course ; tree age
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In the bark of Populus tremula L. photochemical efficiency of photosystem 2 (PS2) determined as Fv/Fm decreased during winter. The strongest reduction was found after cold periods. The degree of reduction depended on irradiance since the lowest levels of Fv/Fm were found on the sun-exposed side of the stem and below thin phellem. Therefore, photoinhibition was partly responsible for the reduction in Fv/Fm. The photochemical efficiency of PS2 recovered in late April about a month before the trees got leaves. In the laboratory, Fv/Fm recovered within about a week under low irradiance at 20 °C. Rapid recovery of photochemical efficiency of PS2 in the bark may be important to reduce respiratory loss of CO2 from the stem before the trees get leaves.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Physiologia plantarum 91 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Plants of Phippsia algida (Sol.) R. Br. were cultivated in short days (SD; 8 h summer daylight) and in long days (LD; 8 h summer daylight + 16 h low irradiance extension of 5 μmol m−2 s−1) at 9, 15, and 21°C. In this plant, inflorescence primordia are initiated in both LD and SD, but LD are required for heading and inflorescence development (Heide, O.M.; Physiol. Plant. 85: 606–610. 1992). Total dry matter production was slightly increased by LD over SD at 9°C, while it was little affected by daylength at 15 and 21°C. Phippsia algida contained mainly fructans with a low degree of polymerization, largely of the kestose series. After 29 to 42 days (depending on the temperatature) of photoperiodic treatment, fructans constituted 15–20 percent of dry mass of SD-grown plants compared with only 2–3 percent of dry mass for LD-grown flowering plants. There was no difference due to photoperiod in levels of mono- and disaccharides. Shifting the SD-grown plants to LD conditions resulted in rapid inflorescence development, accompanied by a parallel rapid decrease in the fructan level, while the level of mono- and disaccharides remained constant. The results show that fructans are important as storage carbohydrates in the late snow-bed species P. algida that normally requires several growing seasons for completing its life cycle. Exhaustion of this storage pool during the extremely fast flower and fruit development constitutes an essential part of the plants adaption to a very short growing season.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Vegetative plants of Poa pratensis L. cv. Holt were cultivated in short days (SD; 8 h summer daylight) and in long days (LD; 8 h summer daylight + low intensity extension of 5 μmol m-2 s-1) at 12, 18 and 24°C in one experiment and at 9, 12, 15 and 18°C in another. Relative growth rate (RGR) as the mean of both experiments and all temperatures was 32% higher in LD than in SD between start of daylength treatment and first harvest, and 18% higher in LD than in SD between first and second harvest. Early in the daylength treatment period, more assimilates were allocated to storage in SD than in LD, so that at first harvest leaf sheaths and stems had 175% higher concentration of fructans in SD. Later this allocation pattern changed, and for the larger plants at the second harvest the differences in fructan concentrations were much smaller between the two daylengths. Both sugar and fructan concentrations were highest at low temperatures. The distribution of sugars and fructans varied from mostly sugars in the leaves to mostly fructans in leaf sheaths and stems and roots. The fructans were mainly high degree polymerization fructans. At least two series of fructans were present, and the dominant one was probably based upon kestose. It is concluded that allocation of assimilates to growth in leaf area instead of to storage may be important for the observed LD stimulation of dry matter production.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Properties of the IgG receptors were studied by treating tissue sections or suspensions of peripheral mononuclear cells with various chemical reagents and determining changes in their ability to react with IgG-sensitized erythrocytes (EA). A heterogeneity of the Fc receptors was revealed. lodoacetamide, 2-mercaptoethanol, sodium azide, EDTA, and a pH varying from 6.0 to 8.2 had no effect on Fc receptors in sections of normal lymphoreticular tissue and malignant tissue. Formaldehyde, low pH, and high salt concentrations affected receptor activity to various degrees. Receptors in liver sections and on monocytes were generally more resistant than receptors in spleen sections and on B lymphocytes. Receptors in malignant tissue behaved either like receptors in spleen or like receptors in liver. Although all tissues were sensitive to periodic acid, the Fc receptors in malignant tissue were always more resistant.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Synthesis of the cortical anthraquinone pigment parietin (= physcion) was studied in acetone-rinsed, parietin-free Xanthoria parietina thalli. UV-B induced the synthesis, which increased linearly with UV-B (log-transformed) to the highest applied UV-B level (1.8 W m−2). At natural UV-B levels (0.75 W m−2), parietin resynthesis occurred at a constant pace (106 mg m−2 d−1) during a 14-d period at 220 µmol m−2 s−1 PAR. Under these conditions, 56% of the natural parietin content prior to extraction was resumed, accounting for 10% of total net carbon gain. In the presence of UV-B, the remaining results were consistent with the hypothesis assuming that photosynthates regulate the pace at which parietin is synthesized by the mycobiont. Resynthesis was rapid when photosynthesis was activated by light, or when certain carbohydrates were added exogenously. Additions of ribitol, the carbohydrate delivered from the photobiont, increased the parietin resynthesis substantially. Mannitol, the main fungal polyol, was significantly less effective. Furthermore, parietin resynthesis in X. parietina was depressed at high and low hydration when net photosynthesis is depressed. Therefore, the photobiont regulates the parietin resynthesis pace in its mycobiont partner by the delivery of photosynthates. In conclusion, both lichen bionts play important roles in the synthesis of parietin, which probably acts as a PAR- rather than a UV-B-screen.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-198X
    Keywords: Key words: Nitric oxide   ;   Development   ;   Nitric oxide synthase   ;   Renal hemodynamics   ;   Glomerular filtration rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Although nitric oxide (NO) has a well-established role in regulating renal function in the adult, recent studies point to perhaps an even more critical role for NO in maintaining basal renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the developing kidney. The immature kidney has enhanced renal hemodynamic and functional responses to stimulation and inhibition of NO synthesis when compared with the adult, and these increased responses are not mediated by prostaglandins. Increased intrarenal activity of NO in the developing kidney counter-regulates the highly activated renin angiotensin system by modulating the angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction of the developing renal vasculature, the angiotensin II effects on GFR, as well as renin release. Localization studies demonstrate that NO acts on neonatal RBF and stabilization of GFR through an intrarenal distribution of the synthesizing enzyme, nitric oxide synthase, that is different from that of the adult. The developing kidney is dependent on NO to maintain RBF and GFR during periods of hypoxemia, protecting against renal injury, such as acute renal failure. In summary, NO is vital in the developing kidney to maintain normal physiological function and to protect the immature kidney during pathophysiological stress.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A double-blind, randomized, multicenter study was performed to compare the effect of sucralfate (1 g qid) and cimetidine (400 mg bid) in the treatment of prepyloric ulcer. Altogether 142 patients (68 in the sucralfate and 74 in the cimetidine group) with endoscopically confirmed ulcer within 2 cm of the pylorus completed the study. Endoscopic follow up was performed after four weeks and, if the ulcer was not healed, after eight weeks of treatment. After four weeks, 65% of the ulcers in the sucralfate group were healed, compared to 70% in the cimetidine group. There was no significant difference between sucralfate and cimetidine at either time point. The 95% confidence interval for the difference in ulcer healing with sucralfate or cimetidine ranged from +4 to −19% at eight weeks. Said another way, with an observed difference of 7% (83% vs 90%), the 95% confidence limit ranged from 4% in favor of sucralfate to 19% in favor of cimetidine. Symptomatic relief, antacid intake, and side effects did not differ significantly between the two groups. The healing rate of prepyloric ulcer in this study is similar to that reported for duodenal ulcer after four and eight weeks when treated with sucralfate or cimetidine. Sucralfate is safe and as effective as cimetidine in the short-term treatment of prepyloric ulcer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Acetone-rinsing ; Chlorophyll fluorescence ; Cortical pigments ; Light screening ; Photosynthesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Secondary lichen products can be extracted from air-dry thalli of Xanthoria parietina, Xanthoparmelia conspersa and Parmelina tiliacea with 100% acetone without affecting either short-or long-term viability. In Xanthoria parientina damage by acetone started to occur as water content reached the critical lower limit for photosystem II (PSII) activity. Extraction of the blue-light absorbing cortical pigment parietin increased the susceptibility of both air-dry and hydrated thalli to high light. Damage by high light levels caused a permanent reduction in F v/Fm, quantum yield for photosynthetic O2 production and photosynthetic capacity measured after a 2-day recovery period at low light levels (20 μmol photons m-2 s-1). Parietin therefore protects the photosynthetic apparatus of Xanthoria parietina against damage by high light levels. Extraction of UV-absorbing pigments from Xanthoparmelia conspersa and Parmelina tiliacea did not increase photoinhibition after 24 h exposure to high light.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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