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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Maize ; Transformation ; Lysine ; Dihydrodipicolinate synthase ; Aspartate kinase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Lysine is one of the nutritionally limiting amino acids in food and feed products made from maize (Zea mays L.). Two enzymes in the lysine biosynthesis pathway, aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS), have primary roles in regulating the level of lysine accumulation in plant cells because both enzymes are feedback-inhibited by lysine. An isolated cDNA clone for maize DHPS was modified to encode a DHPS much less sensitive to lysine inhibition. The altered DHPS cDNA was transformed into maize cell suspension cultures to determine the effect on DHPS activity and lysine accumulation. Partially purified DHPS (wildtype plus mutant) from transformed cultures was less sensitive to lysine inhibition than wild-type DHPS from nontransformed cultures. Transformed cultures had cellular free lysine levels as much as four times higher than those of nontransformed controls. Thus, we have shown that reducing the feedback inhibition of DHPS by lysine can lead to increased lysine accumulation in maize cells. Increasing the capacity for lysine synthesis may be an important step in improving the nutritional quality of food and feed products made from maize.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Maize  ;  Transformation  ;  Lysine  ; Dihydrodipicolinate synthase  ;  Aspartate kinase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Lysine is one of the nutritionally limiting amino acids in food and feed products made from maize (Zea mays L.). Two enzymes in the lysine biosynthesis pathway, aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydro-dipicolinate synthase (DHPS), have primary roles in regulating the level of lysine accumulation in plant cells because both enzymes are feedback-inhibited by lysine. An isolated cDNA clone for maize DHPS was modified to encode a DHPS much less sensitive to lysine inhibition. The altered DHPS cDNA was transformed into maize cell suspension cultures to determine the effect on DHPS activity and lysine accumulation. Partially purified DHPS (wildtype plus mutant) from transformed cultures was less sensitive to lysine inhibition than wildtype DHPS from nontransformed cultures. Transformed cultures had cellular free lysine levels as much as four times higher than those of nontransformed controls. Thus, we have shown that reducing the feedback inhibition of DHPS by lysine can lead to increased lysine accumulation in maize cells. Increasing the capacity for lysine synthesis may be an important step in improving the nutritional quality of food and feed products made from maize.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Oryza ; Rice ; PCR ; DNA fingerprinting ; Minisatellite
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) application, involving the directed amplification of minisatellite-region DNA (DAMD) with several minisatellite core sequences as primers, was used to detect genetic variation in 17 species of the genus Oryza and several rice cultivars (O. sativa L.). The electrophoretic analysis of DAMD-PCR products showed high levels of variation between different species and little variation between different cultivars of O. sativa. Polymorphisms were also found between accessions within a species, and between individual plants within an accession of several wild species. The DAMD-PCR yielded genome-specific banding patterns for the species studied. Several DAMD-PCR-generated DNA fragments were cloned and characterized. One clone was capable of detecting multiple fragments and revealed individual-specific hybridization banding patterns using genomic DNA from wild species as well as rice cultivars. A second clone detected only a single polymorphic locus, while a third clone expressed a strong genome specificity by Southern analysis. The results demonstrated that DAMD-PCR is potentially useful for species and genome identification in Oryza. The DAMD-PCR technique also allows for the isolation of informative molecular probes to be utilized in DNA fingerprinting and genome identification in rice.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words RAPD ; Linoleic linolenic acid ; Brassica napus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Linolenic acid is a component of canola oil that is readily oxidized, which results in a reduced frying stability and shelf life of the oil. The reduction of linolenic acid in canola seed has therefore been an important breeding objective for many years. The inheritance of linolenic acid concentrations in seed oil is polygenic and is also strongly influenced by the environment. For these reasons, molecular markers are sought to assist in early and reliable selection of desired low linolenic acid genotypes in breeding programmes. Molecular markers associated with low linolenic acid loci were identified in a doubled-haploid population derived from a cross between the Brassica napus lines, ‘Apollo’ (low linolenic)×YN90-1016 (high linolenic) using RAPDs and bulked segregant analysis. A total of 16 markers were distributed over three linkage groups, which individually accounted for 32%, 14% and 5% of the phenotypic variation in linolenic acid content. The rapeseed fad3 gene was mapped near the locus controlling 14% of the variation. The mode of inheritance appeared to be additive, and a QTL analysis showed that collectively the three loci explained 51% of the phenotypic variation within this population. PCR fragments for low linolenic acid ‘Apollo’ alleles (3% linolenic acid) were identified at all three loci. Simultaneous selection for low linolenic acid ‘Apollo’ alleles at each locus resulted in a group of DH lines with 4.0% linolenic acid. The use of these makers in the breeding programme will enhance the breeding of low linolenic acid B. napus cultivars for production in Canada.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Oat ; Oil content ; Acetyl-CoA carboxylase ; Molecular markers ; Candidate gene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Oat groats are unique among cereals for the high level and the embryo-plus-endosperm localization of lipids. Genetic manipulation of groat quality traits such as oil is desired for optimizing the value of oat in human and livestock diets. A locus having a major effect on oil content in oat groats was located on linkage group 11 by single-factor analysis of variance, simple interval mapping and simplified composite interval mapping. A partial oat cDNA clone for plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo fatty acid synthesis, identified a polymorphism linked to this major QTL. Similar QTL and ACCase locus placements were obtained with two recombinant inbred populations, ‘Kanota’בOgle’ (KO) and ‘Kanota’בMarion’ (KM), containing 137 and 139 individual lines, respectively. By having a common parent these populations provide biological replication of the results in that significant genomic regions should be evident in analyses of multiple cross combinations. The KO population was mapped with 150 RFLP loci distributed over the genome and was grown in five diverse environments (locations and years) for measurement of groat oil content. The KM population was mapped with 60 RFLP loci and grown in three environments. The QTL linked to AccaseA on linkage group 11 accounted for up to 48% of the phenotypic variance for groat oil content. These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that ACCase has a major role in determining groat oil content. Other QTLs were identified in both populations which accounted for an additional 10–20% of the phenotypic variance.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Callus formation frequency ; Corn ; Feeder layer technique ; Protoplasts ; Zea mays L.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A solid feeder layer technique was developed to improve callus formation of Black Mexican Sweet maize (Zea mays L.) suspension culture protoplasts. Protoplasts were plated in 0.2 ml liquid media onto a cellulose nitrate filter on top of agarose-solidified media in which Black Mexican Sweet suspension feeder cells were embedded. Callus colony formation frequencies exceeding 10% of the plated protoplasts were obtained for densities of 103–105 protoplasts/ 0.2 ml, which was 100- to 1,000-fold higher than colony formation frequencies obtained for conventional protoplast plating methods such as liquid culture or embedding in agarose media. Compared with conventional methods, the feeder layer method gave higher colony formation frequencies for three independently maintained Black Mexican Sweet suspension lines. Differences among the three lines indicated that colony formation frequencies might also be influenced by the suspension culture maintenance regime and length of time on different 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The callus colony formation frequency reported is an essential prerequesite for recovering rare mutants or genetically transformed maize protoplasts.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Lotus corniculatus ; Lotus conimbricensis ; Somatic hybridization ; Protoplast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Somatic hybrid plants were produced by fusion of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) cv ‘Leo’ and L. conimbricensis Willd. protoplasts. Birdsfoot trefoil etiolated hypocotyl protoplasts were inactivated with iodoacetate to inhibit cell division prior to fusion with L. conimbricensis suspension culture protoplasts. L. conimbricensis protoplasts divided to form callus which did not regenerate plants. Thus, plant regeneration from protoplast-derived callus was used to tentatively identify somatic hybrid cell lines. Plants regenerated from three cell lines exhibited additive combinations of parental isozymes of phosphoglucomutase, and L. conimbricensis-specific esterases indicating that they were somatic hybrids. The somatic chromosome number of one somatic hybrid was 36. The other somatic hybrid exhibited variable chromosome numbers ranging from 33 to 40. These observations approximate the expected combination of the birdsfoot trefoil (2n=4x=24) and L. conimbricensis (2n=2x=12) genomes. Somatic hybrid flowers were less yellow than birdsfoot trefoil flowers and had purple keel tips, a trait inherited from the white flowered L. conimbricensis. Somatic hybrids also had inflorescence structure that was intermediate to the parents. Fifteen somatic hybrid plants regenerated from the three callus lines were male sterile. Successul fertilization in backcrosses with birdsfoot trefoil pollen has not yet been obtained suggesting that the hybrids are also female sterile. This is the first example of somatic hybridization between these two sexually incompatible Lotus species.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Genetic transformation ; Silicon carbide fibers ; BAR gene ; Maize ; Tobacco
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Maize (Zea mays, cv ‘Black Mexican Sweet’) (BMS) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, cv ‘Xanthi’) tissue cultures were transformed using silicon carbide fibers to deliver DNA into suspension culture cells. DNA delivery was mediated by vortexing cells in the presence of silicon carbide fibers and plasmid DNA. Maize cells were treated with a plasmid carrying both the BAR gene, whose product confers resistance to the herbicide BASTA, and a gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS). Tobacco cells were treated with two plasmids to co-transfer genes encoding neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) and GUS from the respective plasmids. Thirty-four BASTA-resistant BMS colonies and 23 kanamycin-resistant tobacco colonies recovered following selection contained intact copies of the BAR gene and NPTII genes, respectively, as determined by Southern blot analysis. Sixty-five percent of the resistant BMS colonies and 50% of the resistant tobacco colonies also expressed GUS activity. Intact copies of the GUS gene were observed in Southern blots of all resistant BMS and tobacco colonies that expressed GUS activity. These results indicate that a simple, inexpensive DNA delivery procedure employing silicon carbide fibers can be used to reproducibly transform cells of both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant species. Mention of a trademark, vendor, or proprietary product does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by the University of Minnesota or the USDA, and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products or vendors that may also be suitable
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Genomic interaction ; Heat-shock transcript accumulation ; Northern analysis ; Triticale
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The influence of the rye genome on the accumulation of HSP18 and HSP70 transcripts in a wheat genetic background was examined in the wheat/rye hybrid triticale (Triticum aestivum cv Chinese Spring x Secale cereale cv Imperial). To quantify the amount of transcript accumulation in wheat, rye, triticale, and in the disomic and the ditelosomic rye addition lines to wheat, we used two independant methods, namely (1) Northern dot-blot hybridizations and (2) an exami-nation of the in-vitro translation products. Both the HSP18 and HSP70 transcripts were expressed at similar levels in Chinese Spring wheat, Imperial rye, and triticale. The HSP18 and HSP70 transcript levels of the disomic and the ditelosomic addition lines to wheat were compared to the transcript levels in wheat. With the exception of 5R, increased levels of HSP18 and/or HSP70 transcripts were expressed in all six of the remaining disomic addition lines. A neutral or suppressed level of HSP18 and HSP70 transcripts accumulated in addition lines 5R, 5RL, 5RS and 6RL. Wheat/rye genomic interactions influenced the level of heat-shock gene transcript accumulation in triticale. Rye chromosome 5R, and in particular both arms of rye chromosome 5R (5RL and 5RS), had a strong suppressive influence on the accumulation of wheat HSP18 and HSP70 transcripts. The genes controlling rye HSP expression appeared to be widely distributed throughout the rye genome.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words PCR ; Minisatellite ; DNA fingerprinting ; Wheat ; Triticale
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Four minisatellite core sequences were used as primers in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, known as the directed amplification of minisatellite-region DNA (DAMD), to detect polymorphisms in three pairs of hexaploid/tetraploid wheat cultivars. In each pair, the tetraploid cultivar (genomic formula AABB) was extracted from its corresponding hexaploid (genomic formula AABBDD) parent. Reproducible profiles of the amplified products revealed characteristic bands that were present only in the hexaploid wheats but not in their extracted tetraploids. Some polymorphisms were observed among the hexaploid cultivars. Twenty-three DAMD-PCR amplified fragments were isolated and screened as molecular probes on the genomic DNA of wild wheat species, hexaploid wheat and triticale cultivars. Subsequently, 8 of the fragments were cloned and sequenced. The DAMD-PCR clones revealed various degrees of polymorphism among different wild and cultivated wheats. Two clones yielded individual-specific DNA fingerprinting patterns which could be used for species differentiation and cultivar identification. The results demonstrated the use of DAMD-PCR as a tool for the isolation of informative molecular probes for DNA fingerprinting in wheat cultivars and species.
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