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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The IV injection of squalene-treated cell wall skeleton of Nocardia rubra (N-CWS) into F344 rats rendered their alveolar macrophages (AM) tumoricidal. Maximum tumoricidal activity developed in AM by 24 h after the IV, but not IP or SC, injection of 300 μg N-CWS. Tumoricidal activity of AM was maintained for 48–72 h after one IV injection of N-CWS. Experimental lung metastases were produced in female F344 rats by the IV injection of viable syngeneic mammary adenocarcinoma cells. Treatments twice weekly with Hank's balanced salt solution, N-CWS placebo or N-CWS began 3, 7, or 10 days later and were continued for 3 or 4 weeks for a total of six or eight treatments. Practically all the rats (〉90%) treated with N-CWS beginning on either day 3 or day 7 after tumor cell challenge survived until day 210, when the experiment was terminated. In contrast, 90% of the rats treated with balanced salt solution or N-CWS placebo died by day 70 of the experiment. Therapy with N-CWS preparation was not successful when the first injection was administered 10 days after tumor cell challenge, suggesting that this therapeutic regimen is effective only against minimal tumor burden. We conclude that in this animal tumor model, the IV injection of N-CWS preparations can render AM tumoricidal and aid in the eradication of pulmonary micrometastases.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) was induced by feeding male F344 rats on a 5% casein diet for 7 weeks. At appropriate times, rats from control (20% casein diet) and PCM groups were killed and alveolar macrophages (AM) were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. The functional integrity of the AM was determined by measuring their ability to become tumoricidal on treatment with macrophage activators, such as muramyl dipeptide (MDP) or multilamellar liposomes containing MDP or its lipophilic analog, MTP-PE. After 5 and 7 weeks, the numbers of lavaged AM per gram body weight of rats were much higher in the PCM group than in the control group. In week 3, AM from the PCM group showed spontaneous tumoricidal activity against syngeneic tumor cells, but in weeks 5 and 7 they did not. However, AM from PCM rats behaved the same way as controls in their response to activation stimuli in vitro with multilamellar liposomes containing synthetic MDP or MTP-PE. These data show that PCM affects the number of AM, but that AM from rats in a state of PCM become tumoricidal in response to activation stimuli in vitro.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Studies were performed on the activation of human blood monocytes to the antitumor state by a dried preparation of multilamellar vesicle (MLV) liposomes in which synthetic muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (MTP-PE) was inserted directly into the liposome membrane. Dried liposomes composed of synthetic phospholipids [phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in a molar ratio of 7:3] were prepared by lyophilization. Dried liposome-MTP-PE was found to be superior in several ways to free desmethyl muramyl dipeptide (norMDP) or conventional liposome-MTP-PE, prepared immediately before use. First, dried lipsome-MTP-PE was stable and strongly activated monocytes when stored for over 3 months in a freezer at −°C or even in suspension at 4°C. Second, human monocytes in suspension, as well as in the adherent form, were activated to the tumoricidal state by interaction for at least 4 h with the dried preparation of liposome-MTP-PE. Third, monocytes activated with the dried liposome-MTP-PE or conventionally prepared liposome-MTP-PE maintained their tumoricidal activity for a longer period (4 days) than those activated with free norMDP. These results indicate that the dried preparation of liposome-MTP-PE can be stored for a long time, has a reproducible effect that can be standardized and should be valuable for in situ activation of human monocytes to the tumoricidal state, which is associated with eradication of cancer metastases.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Spleen cells of C57BL/6N mice bearing lung metastases were induced to the cytotoxic state by subcutaneous injection of recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) at a minimum dose of 5×104 U/mouse three times a day for 3 consecutive days. A single intraperitoneal injection of lentinan alone at concentrations of up to 10 mg/kg body weight did not render spleen cells cytotoxic to P-29 cells, but a combination of subthreshold doses of these agents (5×104 U/ml IL-2 and 5 mg/kg lentinan) induced significant in vivo lymphokine-activated killer activity in spleen cells of tumor-bearing mice. Similarly, spleen cells from mice treated i.p. with lentinan became cytotoxic on in vitro treatment with IL-2. The in vitro responsiveness of spleen cells to IL-2 was maximal 3 days after i.p. injection of lentinan. Synergism between IL-2 and lentinan was also observed in mice bearing spontaneous lung micrometastases: neither IL-2 (〈5×104 U/mouse) nor lentinan (〈2.5 mg/kg) alone had a therapeutic effect, but multiple injections of IL-2 with a single injection of lentinan resulted in significant inhibition of spontaneous pulmonary metastases. From these results we conclude that IL-2 and lentinan in combination are more effective than either one alone for inducing destruction of pulmonary metastases.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Human blood monocytes were isolated by counter-flow centrifugal elutriation from healthy donors and these noncytotoxic monocytes were rendered tumoricidal to allogeneic melanoma (A375) cells by activation with a synthetic acyltripeptide (FK-565), as assessed by measuring release of [125I]iododeoxyuridine in 72 h. When monocytes were treated with FK-565 for 16 h, and then fixed with paraformaldehyde, they showed cytotoxicity to A375 melanoma cells. The fixed-monocyte-mediated cytotoxicity to A375 cells was induced by the synergistic actions of FK-565 and recombinant interferon-γ (rIFN-γ), but not other cytokines [rIFN-αA, rIFN-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-2, -3 and -6]. For synergistic activation of monocytes with induction of a membrane-associated antitumor monokine, the monocytes had to be incubated first with rIFN-γ and then with FK-565. FK-565 also acted synergistically with rIFN-γ to stimulate monocytes to produce membrane-associated IL-1 activity, which induced C3H/HeJ thymocyte blastogenesis in response to phytohemagglutinin P. The tumoricidal and thymocytestimulating activities of the fixed monocytes were almost completely inhibited by a specific anti-(IL-1α) antiserum, but not by a specific anti-(IL-1β) antiserum or monoclonal anti-TNF antibody. These results suggest that membrane-associated IL-1α of human blood monocytes can be induced by two activation signals (rIFN-γ then FK-565) at their suboptimal concentrations.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We investigated whether human peripheral blood monocytes isolated by centrifugal elutriation from healthy donors could be acitivated to become tumoricidal and release tumor cytolytic factor (TCF) subsequent to incubation with recombinant human interferon-gamma (r-IFN-γ) or a derivative of muramyl dipeptide (nor-MDP), or both. Blood monocytes incubated in endotoxin-free medium containing up to 1000 U/ml of r-IFN-γ or in medium containing less than 1 μg/ml of nor MDP were not activated to lyse radiolabeled allogeneic human tumor cells. In contrast, the incubation of monocytes with various dose combinations of r-IFN-γ and nor-MDP generated significant direct cytotoxic activity as well as production of TCF. Preincubation of the r-IFN-γ and nor-MDP mixture with polymyxin B did not inhibit the synergism, thus ruling out the possibility that the process was due to endotoxin contamination. TCF harvested from monocyte culture supernatants was cytolytic against five allogeneic tumor targets, but not against a nontumorigenic cell line. Collectively, the data demonstrate that r-IFN-γ can prime human blood monocytes to allow their activation by synthetic nor-MDP.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of lung cancer on the abilities of blood monocytes to produce interleukin-1 and to mediate antitumor activity were examined. The functional integrity of blood monocytes was determined by their capacity to respond in vitro to a variety of activating agents and become tumoricidal, as assessed by a radioactive release assay and ability to produce interleukin-1 in vitro. The results show that the presence of lung cancer significantly increased the number of harvested blood monocytes and that the spontaneous tumoricidal activity of these monocytes was slightly high as compared to monocytes obtained from healthy donors. The production of interleukin-1 by monocytes of healthy donors and lung cancer patients was similar. Blood monocytes obtained from lung cancer patients were less cytotoxic against allogeneic A375 melanoma cells as compared with those of healthy donors subsequent to incubation with a soluble muramyl dipeptide analog or lipopolysaccharide, but were as tumoricidal as those from healthy donors when activated with lipophilic muramyl tripeptide (MTP-PE) entrapped in multilamellar liposomes. The finding that monocytes of patients with lung cancer can respond to MTP-PE encapsulated in liposomes, recommends the use of these liposomes in therapy of human lung cancer.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Key words Interferon γ ; Malignant pleurisy ; Lung cancer ; Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist ; Pro-inflammatory cytokines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The effect of intrapleural instillation of recombinant human interferon γ (IFNγ) at increasing doses of (1–12) × 106 U was examined in six patients with cytologically positive pleural effusion due to lung cancer. Intrapleural instillation was repeated up to three times. Clinically, no reaccumulation of pleural effusion was observed in one patient and disappearance of lung cancer cells from the pleural effusion was seen in two other patients. No severe side-effects were observed. Considerable levels of IFNγ remained in the pleural effusion as well as in patients’ serum up to 7 days after instillation of 2 × 106 U and higher doses. The total cell number showed a transient decrease on day 1 of therapy. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin(IL)-1β and IL-6, in the pleural effusion remained almost stable after IFNγ instillation. On the other hand, intrapleural IL-1 receptor antagonist levels were remarkably elevated by the instillation of IFNγ. IL-2- and IL-12-inducible killer activity of pleural mononuclear cells tended to increase slightly. Despite the inability of IFNγ to control pleural effusion in this treatment schedule, IFNγ instilled by an intrapleural route had a potential local antitumor activity. Moreover, since IFNγ persists in pleural effusions for a long time after a single instillation, such a therapy in combination with other fibrogenic biological response modifiers can be promising.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Key words VEGF ; Exudative pleural effusion ; Malignant pleurisy ; Lung cancer ; Interferon γ
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was examined by enzyme immunoassay in 60 cytology-documented malignant pleural effusions associated with primary lung cancer and 51 other benign and malignant pleural effusions. Exudative pleural effusions contained significantly higher amounts of VEGF than transudative pleural effusions. Among exudative pleural effusions, levels of VEGF in malignant pleural effusions associated with lung cancer were significantly higher than those of benign exudative pleural effusions. There was no significant difference in pleural VEGF in patients with different histological types or clinical stages of lung cancer. Serial measurement of pleural VEGF levels was performed in six lung cancer patients treated with intrapleural instillation of recombinant interferon γ, and reduction of pleural effusion was associated with decreasing pleural VEGF levels. These findings suggest that VEGF has a role in the accumulation of exudative pleural effusions, especially that of malignant pleural effusion associated with lung cancer.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-8280
    Keywords: monocyte ; cytotoxicity ; monokine ; tumor cytotoxic factor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Human blood monocytes activated to the tumoricidal state were previously found to release a factor(s) responsible for tumor cell killing. The activity of the tumor cytotoxic factor(s) (TCF) was determined by release assay of radioactivity from human A375 melanoma cells. On fractionation of the supernatant of activated monocytes by Ultrogel AcA34 and TSK-G3000SW gel chromatographies two major peaks of the material with TCF activity with MWs of 30,000 and 15,000, called TCF-I and TCF-11, respectively were obtained. TCF-II could be neutralized by polyclonal anti-IL-1β antiserum, but anti-IL-1α antiserum did not neutralize either factor. TCF-I was separated by ampholine column electrofocusing into three major fractions with TCF activity at pI 5, 6 and 6.8, named TCF-1α, TCF-1β and TCF-1γ, respectively. The cytotoxic and IL-1 activities of TCF-1α were neutralized by anti-IL-1α serum, whereas those of TCF-1β and TCF-1γ were not completely neutralized by anti-IL-1α or anti-IL-1β antiserum. On DEAE ion-exchange chromatography (TSK DEAE 5PW) TCF-Iβ gave two peaks with TCF activity (TCF-Iβ1 and TCF-Iβ2). TCF-Iβ1 was slightly neutralized by anti-TNFα antibody, but TCF-Iβ2 was not affected by antisera against IL-1α and IL-1β, or anti-TNFα antibody, thus ruling out the possibility that tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) might be involved in tumor cell killing mediated by TCF-Iβ2. These results indicate that human monocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against human A375 melanoma cells is mediated in part by a tumor cytotoxic factor (TCF; MW, 30,000; pI 6), differing from IL-1 and TNFα.
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