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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Keywords: Adenylate cyclase ; Chick optic tectum ; G protein ; Guanine nucleotide ; Kainic acid receptor
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Shuttle avoidance training decreased the cAMP content of rat brain (excluding hippocampus and caudate nucleus), amygdala and hypothalamus. Stimulation by tones alone had a similar effect, but only in the brain fraction. Pseudoconditioning or footshocks alone had no effect.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Seizures ; 2,3 dimercaptopropanol ; muscimol ; glutamatergic ; GABAergic systems
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract 2,3 dimercaptopropanol (BAL), is a dithiol chelating agent, used for the treatment of heavy metal intoxication; however, this compound has low therapeutic efficacy and in some situations may cause neurotoxic effects. In experimental models, administration of high doses of BAL produces seizures that culminate in animal death. However, investigations on the modulation of neurotransmitter system(s) involved in BAL-induced seizures are still lacking in the literature. In the present study, the neurotoxicity of BAL, as measured by the manifestation of seizures was examined and the modulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors and ion channels potentially involved in BAL-induced seizures was investigated. The results demonstrated that BAL (18.6 mg/kg) induced seizures and all mice died within one day. GABAergic allosteric modulators (3 or 12 mg/kg diazepam and 50 mg/kg phenobarbital) blocked the appearance of seizure and reduced almost completely the death caused by BAL. Carbamazepine (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the incidence of BAL-induced seizures, while sodium valproate and MK-801 were not effective in reducing the incidence of seizures. Valproate (300 mg/kg) and MK-801(0.5 mg/kg) prolonged the latencies for onset of seizures; however, all animals died within one day after BAL administration. High doses of ZnCl2 (135 mg/kg) blocked the appearance of seizures episodes, but no animal survived more than one day. The content of total non-protein—SH in brain of mice treated with 18.6 and 124 mg/kg BAL increased from 0.9 ± 0.3 nmol/g (control animals) to 1.7 ± 0.3 and 3.5 ± 0.8 nmol/g, respectively. In vitro, 0.1–1 mM concentrations of BAL inhibited [3H]glutamate and [3H]MK-801 binding, but increased the binding of [3H]muscimol to brain synaptic plasma membrane. The results reported here demonstrate that GABAergic allosteric modulators (diazepam and phenobarbital) and carbamazepine, a compound that acts by prolonging the recovery of voltage-activated ion channels from inactivation, are able to abolish BAL-induced seizures, while the NMDA antagonist (MK-801) prolonged the latencies for onset of seizures suggesting that modulators of this subtype of glutamate receptor have a modest role on BAL-induced seizures. The results of the present study suggest that allosteric modulators of GABAergic system and carbamazepine, a voltage-gated Na+-channel antagonist, should be considered for the treatment of animals or patients intoxicated with BAL.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148 , USA. , and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , England . : Blackwell Science Inc
    Journal of cardiac surgery 17 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1540-8191
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Aim: Saphenous vein (SV) is the most commonly used conduit in bypass procedures but has a one-year occlusion rate of 15-30%. A new ‘no-touch’ technique where the SV is harvested with a cushion of surrounding tissue with no distension has led to improved early patency rates of 5% at 18-months. Nitric oxide (NO), synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has properties beneficial to graft patency. Our aim was to study the distribution of NOS in SV harvested by this technique and the effect of distension and removal of perivascular tissue on NOS content of SV. Methods: Following ethical committee approval and patients' informed consent, SVs were harvested from ten patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. A segment of vein was harvested by the conventional technique (surrounding tissue stripped and vein distended with saline); another part was stripped but not distended (‘control’) and the remaining parts harvested by the ‘no-touch’ technique. Samples of each segment were taken and transverse sections prepared for NOS identification using 3[H]L-NG nitroarginine (NO Arg) autoradiography and NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. NOS isoforms were studied using standard immunohistochemistry. Endothelial cells and nerves were also identified using immunohistochemistry with CD31 and NF200 respecitvely, to confirm sources of NOS. Morphometric analysis of NADPH-diaphorase staining was carried out to study tissue NOS content. Results: NO Arg binding representing NOS was preserved on the lumen of ‘no-touch’ vessels whilst that on conventional and control vessels was reduced. NOS was also localised to the medial smooth muscle cells of all vein segments and to the intact adventitia of ‘no-touch’ segments. This was confirmed by NADPH-diaphorase staining, which revealed a mean reduction of NOS by 19.5% (p 〈 0.05, ANOVA) in control segments due to stripping of surrounding tissue alone and a reduction of 35.5% (p 〈 0.01, AVNOVA) in conventional segments due to stripping and distension, compared to ‘no-touch’ segments. Adventitial NOS sources in ‘no-touch’ vessels corresponded to vasa vasorum and paravascular nerves. All three NOS isoforms contributed to the preserved NOS in ‘no-touch’ vessels. Conclusions: Apart from preserved lumenal NOS, NOS sources are also located in the media and adventitia of SV grafts. These are reduced by both adventitial damage and vein distension during conventional vein harvesting. The ‘no-touch’ technique avoids these procedures, preserving NOS sources. This may result in improved NO availability in SV harvested by this technique, contributing to the improved patency rates reported.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-6784
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The production of protoplasts of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius, isolate Pt 571, was improved using young mycelium treated with Novozym-234 dissolved in 0.5M mannitol in the proportion 20:1:0.15 (mg mycelium: mg enzyme: ml mannitol) and incubated at 25°C for 4 hours. Plating the protoplasts on the surface of solid medium containing 0.5M mannitol increased the regeneration rate.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Adenosine ; glutamate ; kainate ; trans-ACPD ; l-AP3 ; (rs)M-CPG ; cAMP ; newborn chicks
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Changes on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in response to adenosine and glutamate and the subtype of glutamate receptors involved in this interaction were studied in slices of optic tectum from 3-day-old chicks. cAMP accumulation mediated by adenosine (100 μM) was abolished by 8-phenyltheophylline (15 uM). Glutamate and the glutamatergic agonists kainate or trans-d,l-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD) did not evoke cAMP accumulation. Glutamate blocked the adenosine response in a dose-dependent manner. At 100 μM, glutamate did not inhibit the effect of adenosine. The 1 mM and 10 mM doses of glutamate inhibited adenosine-induced cAMP accumulation by 55% and 100%, respectively. When glutamatergic antagonists were used, this inhibitory effect was not affected by 200 μM 6,7-dihydroxy-2,3,dinitroquinoxaline (DNQX), an ionotropic antagonist, and was partially antagonized by 1 mM (rs)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine [(rs)M-CPG], a metabotropic, antagonist, while 1 mMl-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionate (l-AP3) alone, another metabotropic antagonist, presented the same inhibitory effect of glutamate. Kainate (10 mM) and trans-ACPD (100 μM and 1 mM) partially blocked the adenosine response. This study indicates the involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptors in adenylate cyclase inhibition induced by glutamate and its agonists trans-ACPD and kainate.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Description: The clinical pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae is a relevant cause of nosocomial infections, and resistance to current treatment with carbapenem antibiotics is becoming a significant problem. Statins are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) used for controlling plasma cholesterol levels. There is clinical evidence showing other effects of statins, including decrease of lung inflammation. In the current study, we show that pretreatment with atorvastatin markedly attenuated lung injury, which was correlated with a reduction in the cellular influx into the alveolar space and lungs and downmodulation of the production of proinflammatory mediators in the initial phase of infection in C57BL/6 mice with K. pneumoniae . However, atorvastatin did not alter the number of bacteria in the lungs and blood of infected mice, despite decreasing local inflammatory response. Interestingly, mice that received combined treatment with atorvastatin and imipenem displayed better survival than mice treated with vehicle, atorvastatin, or imipenem alone. These findings suggest that atorvastatin could be an adjuvant in host-directed therapies for multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae , based on its powerful pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects. Together with antimicrobial approaches, combination therapy with anti-inflammatory compounds could improve the efficiency of therapy during acute lung infections.
    Print ISSN: 0066-4804
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-6596
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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