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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 4 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The filtration efficiency of ventilation air cleaners is highly particle-size dependent over the 0.01 to 3 μm diameter size range. Current standardized test methods, which determine only overall efficiencies for ambient aerosol or other test aerosols, provide data of limited utility. Because particles in this range are respirable and can remain airborne for prolonged time periods, measurement of air cleaner fractional efficiency is required for application to indoor air quality issues. The objectives of this work have been to 1) develop a test apparatus and procedure to quantify the fractional filtration efficiency of air cleaners over the 0.01 to 3 μm diameter size range and 2) quantify the fractional efficiency of several induct air cleaners typical of those used in residential and office ventilation systems.Results show that efficiency is highly dependent on particle size, flow rate, and dust load present on the air cleaner. A minimum in efficiency was often observed in the 0.1 to 0.5 μm diameter size range. The presence of a dust load frequently increased an air cleaner's efficiency; however, some air cleaners showed little change or a decrease in efficiency with dust loading. The common furnace filter had fractional efficiency values of less than 10% over much of the measurement size range.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Analysis of the impact of sources on indoor pollutant concentrations and occupant exposure to indoor pollutants requires knowledge of the emission rates from the sources. Emission rates are often determined by chamber testing and the data from the chamber test are fitted to an empirical model. While the empirical models are useful, they do not provide information necessary to scale the chamber data to buildings nor do they provide information necessary to understand the processes controlling emissions. A mass transfer model for gas-phase-limited mass transfer is developed and described in this paper. Examples of sources with gas-phase-limited emissions are moth cakes, floor wax, stain, and varnish. The mass transfer model expresses the emission rate in terms of a mass transfer coefficient and a driving force. The mass transfer coefficient can be predicted from correlations of the Nusselt number and the Reynolds number. The experiments and data analysis used to develop the correlation are described in the paper. Experiments to verify the assumptions used to describe the driving force are also described. Suggestions for using data from existing empirical emission models to determine parameters for the mass transfer model are provided. The mass transfer model provides a significantly better fit to data from an indoor air quality test house than does the empirical first order decay model.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Latex paints are widely used in residential and commercial indoor environments. The surface areas covered by the paints in these environments are relatively large. Thus, latex paints have the potential for having a major impact on indoor air quality (IAQ). A study was undertaken to develop methods for evaluating the impact of latex paint emission on IAQ. Small chamber experiments using stainless steel and painted and unpainted gypsum board substrates were conducted to determine the emission characteristics of latex paint. The emissions from the stainless steel were relatively short lived (3 to 4 days), whereas the emissions from gypsum board lasted for over 200 days. Because gypsum board is a common substrate for latex paint, all emission models were developed for the gypsum board substrates. The data from the small chamber tests led to the development of two empirical and two mass-transfer-based source emission models. Approximately 100 to 200 days of data were required to estimate the parameters required for the empirical models. Only 8 days of data were required to estimate the parameters for the mass-transfer-based models. The final models use paint formulation and mass transfer correlations to predict the emissions of the major individual volatile organic compounds emitted by latex paint.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Emission models developed using small chamber data were combined with an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) model to analyze the impact of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from latex paint on indoor environments. Test house experiments were conducted to verify the IAQ model's predictions. The agreement between model predictions and experimental measurements met the American Society for Testing and Materials criteria for model verification in the room with the source and met most of the requirements in other rooms. The major cause of disagreement between the model predictions and the experimental data in the test house appears to be an inadequate sink model.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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