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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 4 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: A health and housing questionnaire was administered to children, ages 9-11, living in 24 communities in the United States and Canada. Logistic regression analysis examined the relationship between respiratory health symptoms (bronchitic, asthmatic and lower respiratory) and housing factors. The health risks (expressed as relative odds) were controlled for gender, parental asthma, parental chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and parental education, as well as between-city differences. Lower respiratory symptoms had significantly higher odds ratios reported in older homes (1.12), homes with smokers (1.24), air conditioners (1.14), air cleaners (1.37), and humidifiers (1.47). Home dampness (1.48) and the individual mold and water variables were all significantly associated with increased symptoms. Similar results were reported for bronchitic and asthmatic symptoms. While air conditioners and air cleaners were confounded with symptoms, humidifiers remained significant after controlling for childhood atopy.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1752-7325
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objectives: This paper evaluates the relation of tooth loss to incidence of coronary heart disease in two large cohort studies. Methods: Participants included 41,407 men and 58,974 women free of any cardiovascular diseases at baseline. We recorded 1,654 incident coronary heart disease events (562 fatal events) among men during 12 years of follow-up and 544 events (158 fatal events) among women during 6 years of follow-up. Results: After controlling for important cardiovascular risk factors, compared to men with 25–32 teeth at baseline, men with 0–10 teeth had a significantly higher risk of coronary heart disease (relative risk [RR]/1.36; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]/1.11, 1.67). The relative risk increased to 1.79 (95% CI/1.34, 2.40) when limited to fatal events. Women with 0–10 teeth were also at increased risk of coronary heart disease compared to women with 25–32 teeth (RR/1.64; 95% CI/1.31, 2.05). The association was similar for fatal events (RR/1.65; 95% CI=1.11, 2.46). The association between number of teeth and incidence of coronary heart disease was similar between men with and without a history of periodontal disease, and there was no significant association between tooth loss during follow-up and coronary heart disease. Conclusions: This study showed a significant association between number of teeth at baseline and risk of coronary heart disease and the mechanisms to explain this association should be further clarified. [J Public Health Dent 2004;64(4):209–15]
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Breast cancer ; maternal age ; paternal age ; prospective study ; USA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We examined the relation between parental age at birth and risk of breast cancer among daughters in a population of 118,309 US women who were 30 to 55 years of age in 1976 and without prior diagnosis of cancer. During 1,140,239 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1,799 incident cases of breast cancer in this population. After adjusting for established breast cancer risk factors, we observed only a weak and nonsignificant trend in risk of breast cancer with increasing maternal age at birth and no relation for paternal age. After adjusting for other risk factors, the chi trend was 1.10, P=0.27 for increasing maternal age at birth. Daughters born to mothers 30 to 34 years of age had an age-adjusted relative risk of breast cancer of 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.89, 1.37) compared to daughters born to mothers less than 20 years of age. The weak positive trend in risk with increasing maternal age was present among both pre-and postmenopausal women. These findings suggest that there is little or no association between maternal age and risk of breast cancer, and that paternal age is not related to risk of breast cancer.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: body height ; body weight ; colorectal neoplasms ; smoking ; United States ; women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Female registered nurses in the United States who responded to a questionnaire in 1976 that inquired about height, weight, and smoking history were followed for the development of colon or rectal cancers through May of 1984. Among the 118,404 respondents free of cancer in 1976, 191 colon cancers and 49 rectal cancers were observed during 916,170 person-years of follow-up. After omitting cases diagnosed within two years of weight report, we found little overall relation of body mass (Quetelet's) index to colon cancer risk; however there was a suggestion of elevated risk for the heaviest category of body mass index (≥29 kg/m2, relative risk (RR)=1.5; 95 percent confidence interval = 0.8–2.7) relative to the lowest category (〈21 kg/m2). Self-reported body mass index from adolescence had a slightly more pronounced, although not significant, association with risk of colon cancer. Increasing height was significantly associated with colon cancer (RR=1.6, 95 percent confidence interval = 1.1–2.5 for the tallest category [≥168 cm] vs the shortest [〈160 cm], trend P=0.04). Measures of current or past smoking failed to demonstrate any consistent relationship with colon cancer.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Alcohol ; bias ; breast neoplasms ; case-control studies ; prospective studies ; questionnaires ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Recall and selection bias are well-recognized potential problems in case-control studies of alcohol and cancer, but few analyses have attempted to assess the direction and the magnitude of these potential biases. We thus examined alcohol consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer using dietary questionnaires administered both before and after the diagnosis of breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Study (United States). Among cohort members who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1986 and who were free of cancer, 616 were diagnosed with breast cancer during follow-up to December 1989. These cases and 1,277 controls (a random sample of cohort members who did not develop cancer up to 1990) then were sent another questionnaire inquiring about their diet in 1985. Four hundred and ninety-four cases (80.2 percent) and 999 controls (78.2 percent) responded to the second questionnaire. The analysis based on the prospective (1986) questionnaire demonstrated an elevated risk of breast cancer among women who drank 30 or more g of alcohol daily (about two drinks) relative to nondrinkers (odds ratio [OR]=1.55, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=1.01–2.39). The analysis based on the retrospective questionnaire also indicated a similar but slightly attenuated elevation of risk of breast cancer among women who drank at least 30 g daily (OR=1.42, CI=0.85–2.40). In these data, bias due to selection and recall had only minor effects on reported intake of alcohol consumption.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Breast cancer ; endogenous hormones ; family history ; postmenopausal women ; reproductive factors ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Parity, age at first birth, age at menarche, and a family history of breast cancer have each been associated consistently with breast cancer risk. Whether this increase in risk is mediated, at least in part, through changes in endogenous hormone levels is unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the relationships between these factors and plasma hormone levels in 216 healthy postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study (United States). The hormones evaluated were estradiol, percent and total free estradiol, percent and total bioavailable estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, and prolactin. After controlling for age, body mass index (weight/height2), and alcohol use, we observed inverse associations between estrone sulfate and parity (r=−0.15, P=0.03) and between percent bioavailable estradiol and age at first birth (r=−0.17, P=0.02). Although women with a family history of breast cancer tended to have higher estrogen levels compared with women without such history, the differences were not statistically significant. Age at menarche was not related significantly to any of the hormones. These data provide some additional evidence that the inverse relationship observed between parity and breast cancer risk may be mediated, at least in part, through decreased estrogen levels. Our data do not support a substantial influence of either family history of breast cancer or age at menarche on postmenopausal estrogen or prolactin levels.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: colorectal neoplasms ; glycosylated ; hemoglobin A ; United States ; women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: The consistently observed epidemiologic associations of obesity and physical activity with colorectal cancer and precursor adenoma risk suggest that insulin and glucose control may be contributory. We evaluated the association of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a clinical indicator of average glycemia over the previous 2 months, and possibly, indirectly, a marker of average blood insulin level, with colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: Among women in the Nurses' Health Study, who provided blood in 1989–90 and were diagnosed subsequently in 1989–94, we included 79 colorectal cancer cases and 156 matched controls, and 201 distal colorectal adenoma cases and 201 matched controls. HbA1c concentrations in red blood cells were determined blindly by turbidometric immunoinhibition. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from conditional logistic regression models. Results: HbA1c level did not significantly differ between colorectal cancer cases (median 5.5%) and controls (5.5%, p = 0.5), although a small difference between adenoma cases (5.6%) and controls (5.5%, p = 0.06) was noted. Compared to the lowest tertile of HbA1c (median 5.2%), women in the middle (median 5.5%, OR = 1.2, CI = 0.6–2.5) and upper (5.8%, OR = 1.2, CI = 0.6–2.7) tertiles were not at an increased risk for colorectal cancer. A modestly elevated risk of distal colorectal adenoma in the upper (median 5.8%, OR = 1.4, CI = 0.9–2.3) versus lower (median 5.3%) tertile could not be excluded. These associations were not appreciably altered after adjusting for known and suspected colorectal cancer risk factors. Conclusion: Over the range of levels observed in this relatively small sample of middle-aged women, prediagnostic HbA1c does not clearly predict colorectal cancer and adenoma risk.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Breast cancer ; cohort study ; estrogens ; progestins ; Nurses' Health Study ; USA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We prospectively examined the use of hormone replacement therapy in relation to breast cancer incidence in a cohort of women 30 to 55 years of age in 1976. During 12 years of follow-up (480,665 person-years) among postmenopausal women, 1,050 incident cases of breast cancer were documented. Overall, past users of replacement estrogen were not at increased risk. After adjustment for established risk factors, type of menopause, age at menopause, and current age, the rate ratio (RR) was 0.91, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) = 0.78–1.07. the risk of breast cancer was elevated significantly among current users (RR = 1.33, CI = 1.12–1.57); after adjusting for age, we observed no evidence of increasing risk with increasing duration of use among current users (P trend = 0.41), or among past users (P trend = 0.46). Women currently using unopposed estrogen (RR = 1.42, CI = 1.19–1.70), estrogen and progesterone (RR = 1.54, CI = 0.99–2.39), or progesterone alone (RR = 2.52, CI = 0.66–9.63), were all at increased risk of breast cancer compared with never users. These data suggest that long-term past use of estrogen replacement therapy is not related to risk, that current estrogen use increases risk of breast cancer to a modest degree, and that the addition of progesterone does not remove the increased risk observed with current use of unopposed estrogen.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Breast cancer ; oral contraceptives ; United States ; women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Results of previous epidemiologic studies have provided reassurance that there is little, if any, increase in risk of breast cancer with oral contraceptive (OC) use in general. However, in several studies, an increased risk of breast cancer has been observed in two subgroups, young women who used OCs for extended durations and in women who used OCs prior to a first-term pregnancy. We evaluated these relationships using data from the ongoing Nurses' Health Study cohort (United States). We documented 3,383 cases of breast cancer from 1976 to 1992 among 1.6 million person-years of follow-up. We observed no overall relationship between duration of OC use and breast cancer risk, even among women who reported using OCs for 10 or more years (multivariate relative risk [RR]=1.11, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.94-1.32). Among women less than 45 years of age, the multivariate RR for using OCs for 10 or more years was 1.07 (CI=0.70-1.65) compared with never-users. The risk associated with five or more years of OC use prior to a first full-term pregnancy compared with never-use was 0.96 (CI=0.65-1.43). Among women less than 45 years of age, we observed no evidence of an increased risk with OC use before a first full-term pregnancy (use for five or more years: RR=0.57, CI=0.24-1.31). Because of the age distribution of our cohort, we were unable to evaluate these relationships among women less than 40 years of age. Our study provides considerable evidence that long-term past OC use, either overall or prior to a first full-term pregnancy, does not result in any appreciable increase in breast cancer risk in women over 40 years of age.
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