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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Building characteristics of dwelling units in the metropolitan Boston area were statistically sorted on the basis of observed associations between the variables. First, associations between categories of house characteristics were determined by cross-table analyses with a pair-wise chi-square test. The key characteristics, which have a significant relationship with many other characteristics, were used to classify the dwelling units into several groups. Two key characteristics, i.e. building type and size of building, were determined. Houses were divided into three groups: single-unit building, small multi-unit (2 to 4 units) building, and large multi-unit (5+ units) building. The building type was not associated with indoor source, but was significantly associated with volume of dwelling unit, air exchange rate, and indoor and outdoor NO2 concentrations. Lower airflow, smaller volume units, and higher outdoor NC2 concentrations, in combination with other factors, result in higher indoor NO2 concentrations in multi-dwelling residential units (apartments and condominiums).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: There are few data sets appropriate for characterizing the indoor concentrations of air pollutants over the long term. An understanding of the variability in indoor pollutant levels is particulurly relevant to the design of epidemiologic investigations: misclassifiation of exposure due to the inaccuracy of exposure estimates tends to weaken the association of exposure with health outcome. This paper uses a series of indoor NO2 measurements collected at two-week intervals over 18-month periods between 1988 and 1991 to describe the seasonal and year-to-year variability in indoor NO2,. The data show that there can be large year-to-year differences in both the sample distribution of indoor NO2 as well as the household average. For homes with gas ranges with continuously-burning pilot lights, the average bedroom NO2 concentration was 25% higher in the winter of 1990-1991 than in the winter of 1989-1990 but only 4% higher during the winter of 1988-1989 than during the winter of 1989-1990. The winter-to-winter correlations within homes ranged from a low of 0.53 to a high of 0.88. The year-to-year differences in mean indoor concentrations were not related to temperature patterns. Occupant behaviors that influence air exchange rate and/or source use are hypothesized to be the major determinant of the observed pattern. Exposure data collected during a single year should be cautiously extrapolated to other years. However, in Albuquerque homes, the data suggest that the year-to-year variability in household NO2 levels will not have a strong impact on classifying exposure into broad categories.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 10 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This paper summarizes important new contributions submitted among the many fine health-related papers presented at Indoor Air `99. The paper is a Power Point presentation that may be accessed by the reader at 1. Download the presentation2. Open FILE3. Click PRINT4. The print options for a PowerPoint file are displayed5. Under PRINT WHAT choose NOTES PAGES6. 37 figures will be printed (one per sheet) with the note explaining the figure on each sheet
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 6 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Adjustment of ventilation rates in buildings is widely practised, both to provide good air quality on a proactive basis and to mitigate air quality problems associated with occupant complaints. However, both cross-sectional and experimental epidemiological studies have reported mixed results and have for the most part failed to establish definitive relationships between ventilation rates and symptom prevalence or dissatisfaction with air quality. The difficulties involved in establishing such relationships may be due to a variety of confounding factors which include limitations in study design and interaction effects; difficulties in controlling ventilation rates in experimental studies; inadequate mixing of supply air in occupied spaces; high source strengths for some contaminants; dynamic interactions between sources and ventilation rates that result in increased contaminant emissions; contaminant dose-response sensory effects which are log-linear; potential contaminant generation within ventilation systems themselves; and multifactorial genesis of sick building symptoms.There is limited evidence to suggest that ventilation rate increases up to 10 L/s person may be effective in reducing symptom prevalence and occupant dissatisfaction with air quality and that higher ventilation rates are not effective. Because of complex relationships between ventilation rates, contaminant levels, and building-related health complaints/dissatisfaction with air quality, the use of ventilation as a mitigation measure for air quality problems should be tempered with an understanding of factors which may limit its effectiveness.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 4 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: A health and housing questionnaire was administered to children, ages 9-11, living in 24 communities in the United States and Canada. Logistic regression analysis examined the relationship between respiratory health symptoms (bronchitic, asthmatic and lower respiratory) and housing factors. The health risks (expressed as relative odds) were controlled for gender, parental asthma, parental chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and parental education, as well as between-city differences. Lower respiratory symptoms had significantly higher odds ratios reported in older homes (1.12), homes with smokers (1.24), air conditioners (1.14), air cleaners (1.37), and humidifiers (1.47). Home dampness (1.48) and the individual mold and water variables were all significantly associated with increased symptoms. Similar results were reported for bronchitic and asthmatic symptoms. While air conditioners and air cleaners were confounded with symptoms, humidifiers remained significant after controlling for childhood atopy.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The sampling rate of a nitrogen dioxide (NO2) passive sampling badge was evaluated in indoor environments including an unoccupied research house, residential houses, and an office. Measurements from the NO2 badges were compared with those of a chemiluminescent analyzer the EPA reference method, by placing them near to the sample inlet of the chemiluminescent analyzer In this study, we used a new sampling rate for the NO2 badge placed in indoor environments (an overall mass transfer coefficient of 0.10 cm/s) smaller than the rate previously reported for the badge when used outdoors. The new rate provides more accurate measurements of NO, concentrations in indoor environments. Indoor NO2 concentrations were also measured with the NO2 badges exposed to a constant wind velocity provided by a wind tunnel. Since the measurements of the badge with a constant wind velocity agreed well with the reference method, the badges could be assumed to be a secondary reference measurement. With the badges used as the secondary reference measurement, we developed a portable wind tunnel to evaluate a personal exposure measurement by the badge. The results are presented in Environment International (Lee et al., 1993). Precision of the badge measurements was as good as an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.9779. It was determined that placement of the badge should be at least 10 cm out from an indoor wall surface to avoid undersampling due to NO2 gradients near the surface.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Environmental science & technology 15 (1981), S. 1150-1153 
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Environmental science & technology 26 (1992), S. 2507-2517 
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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