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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biological cybernetics 51 (1984), S. 195-199 
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract David Marr and others have hypothesized that the visual system processes complex scene information in stages, the first of which involves the detection of light intensity edges or “zero-crossings” (Marr, 1982). Ideal zero-crossing detector mechanisms have been described and modeled in terms of their possible physiological implementation (Marr and Hildreth, 1980; Poggio, 1983). We now present evidence of visual cortical receptive fields which resemble in spatial organizational terms the requirements of zero-crossing analysis. The linear and nonlinear summation within and between the receptive field subunits are described and compared with predicted processes. The relative subunit sizes and separations are analyzed in these terms. Our findings support the notion that receptive fields may correspond with zero-crossing filters rather than zero-crossing detector gates.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The responses to visual stimuli of simple cortical cells show linear spatial summation within and between their receptive field subunits. Complex cortical cells do not show this linearity. We analyzed the simulated responses to drifting sinusoidal grating stimuli of simple and of several types of complex cells. The complex cells, whose responses are seen to be half-wave rectified before pooling, have receptive fields consisting of two or more DOG (difference-of-Gaussians) shaped subunits. In both cases of stimulation by contrast-reversal gratings or drifting gratings, the cells' response as a function of spatial frequency is affected by the subunit distances 2λ and the stimulation frequency ω. Furthermore, an increased number of subunits (a larger receptive field) yields a narrower peak tuning curve with decreased modulation depth for many of the spatial frequencies. The average and the peak response tuning curves are compared for the different receptive field types.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract.  The different cortical visual cells exhibit a large repertoire of responses to sinusoidal gratings, depending on their receptive field structure and the stimulation parameters. It has been shown previously that the tuning curves and histogram shapes of cell responses are affected by subunit distances. One receptive field model (Spitzer and Hochstein 1985b) incorporated subunit distance but assigned it as a constant parameter, for ease of calculation. Here we investigate different tuning curve properties of various primary cortical cell types during testing of 10 deg of nonuniform distances of the receptive fields’ subunits. The effect of nonuniformity was compared for average responses, tuning curve shapes, maximum peak responses, and bandwidths across four cell types of different sizes. The shapes and other properties of tuning curves are usually found to be retained also when the degree of uniformity is not very high for most of the cell types. In addition, the effect of uniformity is compared across these different response properties. The maximum peak responses of the tuning curve are found to display a lower coefficient of variation than the bandwidth, for all cell types, for most degrees of uniformity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The different cortical visual cells exhibit a large repertoire of responses to sinusoidal gratings, depending on their receptive field structure and the stimulation parameters. It has been shown previously that the tuning curves and histogram shapes of cell responses are affected by subunit distances. One receptive field model (Spitzer and Hochstein 1985b) incorporated subunit distance but assigned it as a constant parameter, for ease of calculation. Here we investigate different tuning curve properties of various primary cortical cell types during testing of 10 deg of nonuniform distances of the receptive fields' subunits. The effect of nonuniformity was compared for average responses, tuning curve shapes, maximum peak responses, and bandwidths across four cell types of different sizes. The shapes and other properties of tuning curves are usually found to be retained also when the degree of uniformity is not very high for most of the cell types. In addition, the effect of uniformity is compared across these different response properties. The maximum peak responses of the tuning curve are found to display a lower coefficient of variation than the bandwidth, for all cell types, for most degrees of uniformity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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