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  • 1
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: ABC immunocytochemistry ; β-Amylase ; Cytoplasmic localization ; Hordeum vulgare ; Mid-region aleurone ; Spatial distribution ; Starchy endosperm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In comparison with two wild type barley cultivars, Sundance and Bomi, biochemical data show that the high-lysine mutant Hiproly contains abundant amounts of lysine-rich β-amylase, whereas mutant Risø 1508, also a high-lysine mutant, contains negligible amounts of this enzyme. Immunocytochemical studies of germinating barley seeds, using both mono- and polyclonal antibodies to β-amylase, support the biochemical findings of enzyme abundance in developing seeds. Three immunostaining methods for localization of β-amylase were tested; of these, the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method, a relatively new procedure for study of plant tissues, is by far the most sensitive. β-Amylase occurs predominantly in cytoplasm of the endosperm, with a minor, but previously unknown localization in the aleurone of the mid-region of the seeds. A spatial distribution of β-amylase is seen. Endosperm in the upper and lower regions has the greatest amount of β-amylase, with the amount decreasing toward the mid-region. In the mid-region, a limited aleurone localization of β-amylase is found in all four barley strains. The function of this aleurone localization is unclear. In the endosperm, the abundance of β-amylase appears to be inversely correlated with number of starch grains per unit area in Hiproly but not in Risø 1508, yet the rate of germination of the two mutants is essentially identical. Whether β-amylase has a role in starch metabolism in these germinating barley seeds is unclear.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Lung ; Endocrine cells ; Calcitonin generalated peptide ; Bromodeoxyuridine ; Differentiation ; Proliferation ; Hypoxia ; Rat (Wistar)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have tested the suggestion that the reported increase, in hypoxic rats, in the number of lung endocrine cells immunoreactive for the regulatory peptide CGRP is caused by an accumulation of peptide within the cells which renders them more detectable, rather than by a real increase in proliferation. The incorporation of continuously infused 5′-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into nuclei of CGRP-containing cells was studied by immunohistochemistry in the airway and respiratory epithelium of rats kept in a hypoxic (10% O2), normobaric conditions for 7 days and in normoxic, normobaric controls. Some CGRP-immunoreactive cells could also be labelled for BrdU. However, the ratio of the number of cells labelled with both CGRP and BrdU to the number of cells labelled with CGRP alone did not differ significantly between hypoxic and normoxic rats (7.1±0.7 and 6.1±1.2, respectively; mean±SEM; P=0.49). These data strongly suggest that CGRP-containing endocrine cells or their precursors do proliferate in adult rat lung, but that the proliferation is not increased significantly in hypoxia.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The presence of bombesin (gastrin-releasing peptide, GRP)-like immunoreactivity in mucosal endocrine cells of human fetal lung is well established. In this study we have investigated the localisation of pro-GRP mRNA and GRP gene products and compared the distribution and levels of extractable GRP-and C-terminal flanking peptide of human pro-GRP-like immunoreactivity in order to verify synthesis and to investigate their coexistence and molecular forms. Human fetal lungs (14 to 23 weeks gestation) were immunostained, and extracts were assayed using regionspecific antisera to pro-GRP. Additional antisera to chromogranin and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) were used for immunostaining by the peroxidase anti-peroxidase technique and for double immunofluorescence staining using antisera raised in two species. Immunoreactivity for both bombesin (GRP) and flanking peptide was seen mainly in the same endocrine cells, but more cells were stained with antisera to flanking peptide than with antiserum to bombesin (GRP). In situ hybridisation showed that pro-GRP mRNA was present and thus synthesis of the peptides was taking place. Endocrine cells and nerve fibres were PGP 9.5-immunoreactive, and a subset of cells was immunoreactive for bombesin gene products. Radioimmunoassay and chromatography show that pro-GRP is present in both the uncleaved and cleaved forms, and, in agreement with immunocytochemistry results, that an excess of C-terminal peptide of pro-GRP is detectable. It is therefore concluded that GRP-like peptides and flanking peptide are co-local-ised in human pulmonary endocrine cells, but the latter is found in larger concentrations than free GRP. Thus GRP-like peptides may be secreted separately from the flanking peptide(s) of pro-GRP. Furthermore PGP 9.5 appears to be a useful marker for endocrine cells in the respiratory epithelium of human fetal lung.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Several studies have shown the use of non-radioactive labelled DNA probes for in situ hybridisation, mainly to identify cellular DNA. In this study mRNA in situ hybridisation was performed on rat pituitary with biotinylated complementary (c) RNA probes for rat prolactin and growth hormone (GH), and compared with radioactive 35S-radiolabelled probes. Biotinylated cRNA probes were labelled with either biotin-11-UTP or with allylamine-UTP, the latter method being able to produce a higher yield of labelled RNA. Different detection systems were tested, and hybridisation signal was seen in cells of anterior pituitary with both types of biotinylated probes. The signals were detected using either avidin-biotin-complex with peroxidase (ABC), peroxidase-anti-peroxidase (PAP) or gold-silver methods. ABC peroxidase detected using glucose oxidase-diaminobenzidine (DAB)-nickel solution appeared to be the best method for detecting labelled RNA probes, with very strong signal and low background. The biotinylated probes were comparable in sensitivity to the radiolabelled probes in detecting prolactin and GH mRNAs in the anterior lobe of the rat pituitary. These results indicate an alternative methods of labelling and detection of biotinylated probes which could have a potential role in research and diagnostic techniques.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The peptidergic innervation of human dental pulp was studied with indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques. Pulpal nerve fibres displaying immunoreactivity for cholecystokinin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, C-terminal flanking peptide of neuropeptide tyrosine, leucine-enkephalin, methionine-enkephalin, neuropeptide K, neuropeptide tyrosine, peptide with N-terminal histidine and C-terminal isoleucine, somatostatin-28, substance P and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide were observed. Immunoreactive axon varicosities were detectable within radicular and coronal nerve trunks and within the nerve plexus of Raschkow in the para-odontoblastic region. Many peptidergic nerve fibres were observed in association with blood vessels of various sizes. Substance P- and calcitonin-gene-related peptide-immunoreactive axons were visible in the odontoblastic layer. The occurrence of VIP- and PHI-immunoreactive fibres lends support to the hypothesis that human tooth may be supplied by parasympathetic nerves. The immunocytochemical results here shown provide a morphological basis to previous experimental studies concerning the possible roles of neuropeptides in nociception mechanisms, control of the blood flow and modulation of the inflammatory response in dental tissues.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to neurofilament proteins, neuron-specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 have been used to demonstrate nerves, ganglion cells and the supportive glial system of the innervation of various organs. The female genitalia, the urinary tract, the respiratory system, the pancreas, the heart and the skin of several mammalian species, including rat, mouse, guinea pig, cat, pig, monkey and man were fixed in parabenzoquinone and portions of each organ were snap frozen. Serial or free-floating thick cryostat sections were stained using indirect immunofluorescence and peroxidase anti-peroxidase immunocytochemistry. In addition, the newly described and highly sensitive immunogold-silver staining technique was used on Bouin's-fixed and wax-embedded tissues. Antibodies to neurofilament proteins seemed to react with neuronal structures in all the species studied. Alternately stained serial sections showed a similar distribution of neurofilament proteins and neuron-specific enolase-containing nerves. Neuron-specific enolase staining had a diffuse appearance and was found to be highly variable, indicating that the neuron-specific enolase content might be related to the physiological state of the nerves and ganglion cells, whereas antibodies to neurofilament protein gave a consistently intense and very clear picture of the ganglion cells and nerve fibres. Antibodies to S-100 stained supportive elements of the peripheral nervous system in all tissues examined, whereas antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein were more selective.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The immunogold-silver staining technique is shown to be of great value in the detection of regulatory peptide-containing nerves and endocrine cells in routinely fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissues. The method appears to be better for this system than peroxidase anti-peroxidase (PAP) which can yield poor or variable results. Antibodies to regulatory peptides, including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY), glucagon, pancratic polypeptide, and somatostatin 14 and 28, as well as to neurofilaments, neuronspecific enolase (NSE) and S-100, were used on sections of a variety of tissues from rat and pig including respiratory tract, skin, gut, pancreas, vagina, uterus, fallopian tube and kidney. In all cases, stronger immunostaining of nerves was obtained with the immunogold-silver technique than with PAP. The inherent density of the staining was also found to improve the visibility of endocrine cells in the section, and to permit the use of routine histological stains for counterstaining. As immunogold-silver staining is sensitive, rapid, cheap and avoids hazardous reagents, we feel it has great potential for the immunostaining of nerves and endocrine cells that contain regulatory peptides in routinely fixed and embedded tissues and may prove useful in pathology.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have previously shown depletion of nerves and neuropeptides in skin biopsies of diabetic patients, even in the absence of clinical signs and symptoms of sensory and autonomic neuropathy, but were unable to examine the changes occurring at an early stage of the disease. Therefore, the distribution and relative density of peptide-containing nerves was studied in streptozotocin-treated rats in order to assess the progression of neural changes in the initial stages of diabetes. Skin samples dissected from the lip and footpad of diabetic rats, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after streptozotocin injection and age matched controls were sectioned and were immunostained with antisera to the neuropeptides substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and to a general neural marker, protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). No change was apparent in the distribution or relative density of immunoreactive cutaneous nerve fibres 2, 4 and 8 weeks after streptozotocin treatment. By 12 weeks there was a marked increase in the number of CGRP-immunoreactive fibres present in epidermis and dermis, and of VIP-immunoreactive fibres around sweat glands and blood vessels. A parallel increase was seen in nerves displaying PGP 9.5 immunoreactivity. No differences were detected in nerves immunoreactive for either substance P in the epidermis and dermis, and NPY around blood vessels. The alterations in the peptide immunoreactivities may be similar in the initial stages of human diabetes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Nitric oxide (NO) is generated from l-arginine by NO synthases. Localization of the brain enzyme has been carried out in the rat; however, despite data suggesting that NO is a major regulator of vascular and neural functions in man, there is no information about the localization of NO synthase in human tissues. Rabbit antisera to NO synthase purified from rat brain (antisera A and B) were raised, tested by Western blotting, affinity purification and enzyme immunoprecipitation assay, and used to investigate the distribution of the enzyme in a variety of human tissues by immunohistochemistry. Antisera to two synthetic peptides from cloned neural NO synthase were used to aid specificity testing. Antisera A and B reacted with a ∼ 160-kDa protein in Western blots of human brain extracts, gave immunostaining of nerves, and precipitated enzyme activity from rat brain homogenates. Antiserum B to NO synthase also reacted with proteins of Mr between 125 and 140 kDa in extracts of well-vascularised tissues, and immunostained vascular endothelium; the neural and vascular immunoreactivity persisted after affinity purification of antiserum B with the ∼ 160 kDa protein. Endothelial staining with antiserum B was seen in respiratory tract, liver, skin and umbilicus; syncytial trophoblasts stained in the placenta. Neural staining with antiserum A and B was seen in the myenteric and submucous plexus, and in nerve fibres in smooth muscle of the gut and in many areas of the central nervous system, particularly cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord. Therefore, antibodies to rat brain enzyme react with the human equivalent and also with other NO synthase isoforms in human endothelium. These findings support the contention that the endothelial enzyme is a different form with partial homology to that in nerves and also provide an anatomical distribution of NO synthase isoforms.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Bombesin ; Human pro-bombesin ; Lung ; Small cell carcinoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Small cell carcinoma of the lung is a highly malignant tumour. Its known biological products which include bombesin, do not allow the prediction of tumour behaviour. Molecular biology has revealed the amino acid sequence of human pro-bombesin, which consists of a signal peptide, the bioactive bombesin molecule and a C-terminal peptide. We have raised a rabbit antiserum to the first (N-terminal) 21 amino acids of the predicted C-terminal peptide. A total of 505 (361 neuroendocrine) surgically resected pulmonary tumours were evaluated for the presence of immunoreactive bombesin and C-terminal peptide. Strong immunostaining was obtained with the antiserum to the C-terminal peptide of human probombesin in 70% of the small cell carcinomas (175/250), in 63% of atypical (aggressive) carcinoids (31/49) but only in 16% of benign carcinoids (10/62). In contrast, bombesin immunostaining was focal and only moderately strong and the relative proportion of positive cases was quite evenly distributed amongst the neuroendocrine tumours: 35% of carcinoids (22/62), 22% of atypical carcinoids (11/49) and 25% of small cell carcinoma (62/250). None of the squamous, adeno, or large cell undifferentiated carcinomas were immunoreactive for bombesin or the C-terminal peptide. Radioimmunoassay and chromatography of extracts of tumours recovered from wax blocks revealed high concentrations of C-terminal peptide immunoreactivity (241±66 pmol/g of tissue) in all 12 small cell carcinomas studied, moderate concentrations in carcinoid tumours (50±7 pmol/g) and none in non-small cell carcinomas. Patients with tumours showing immunoreactivity to the C-terminal peptide of human pro-bombesin had a significantly shorter survival time than those without immunoreactive peptide (185±16.49 days, mean± SEM, and with 1128±226 days, respectivelyP〉 0.02). The apparent presence of the C-terminal peptide of human pro-bombesin in higher concentrations than bombesin in the more malignant class of endocrine tumours, mainly small cell carcinomas associated with the poorest prognosis, suggests that the antiserum to this C-terminal peptide is not only a useful pathological marker but may prove to be of value in investigating the biological behaviour of small cell carcinomas and predicting the clinical course of the disease.
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