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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Haemophilus influenzae represents a common cause of human disease and an important source of morbidity and mortality. Disease caused by this organism begins with colonization of the upper respiratory tract. Several studies indicate that H. influenzae is capable of binding to and entering cultured human cells, properties which are potentially of relevance to the process of colonization. In the present study, we isolated an H. influenzae gene designated hap, which is associated with the capacity for In vitro attachment and entry. Analysis of the derived amino acid sequence of hap demonstrated significant homology with the serine-type lgA1 proteases expressed by H. influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It is notable that the hap product shares the catalytic domain of the lgA1 proteases and appears to be processed and secreted in an analogous manner. We speculate that the hap gene product is an important determinant of colonization, perhaps enabling the organism to evade the local immune response and thereby persist within the respiratory tract.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Haemophilus influenzae is a human-specific pathogen and a major source of morbidity worldwide. Infection with this organism begins with colonization of the nasopharynx, a process that probably depends on adherence to respiratory epithelium. The Hia autotransporter protein is the major adhesin ex-pressed by a subset of non-typeable H. influenzae strains and promotes high-level adherence to a variety of human epithelial cell lines. In the current study, we discovered that the Hia passenger domain contains two distinct binding pockets, including one at the C-terminal end and a second at the N-terminal end. Competition assays revealed that the two binding pockets interact with the same host cell receptor structure, although with differing affinities. Additional experiments demonstrated that both binding domains are required for full-level bacterial adherence. These observations are reminiscent of eukaryotic cell adhesion molecules and highlight the first example of a bacterial adhesin with two domains that participate in a bivalent interaction with identical host cell receptors. Such an interaction increases avidity, thus stabilizing bacterial adherence to the epithelial surface, despite physical forces such as coughing, sneezing and mucociliary clearance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Non-typable Haemophilus influenzae is a common cause of human disease and initiates infection by colonizing the upper respiratory tract. The non-typable H. influenzae HMW1 and HMW2 adhesins mediate attachment to human epithelial cells, an essential step in the process of colonization. HMW1 and HMW2 have an unusual N-terminus and undergo cleavage of a 441-amino-acid N-terminal fragment during the course of their maturation. Following translocation across the outer membrane, they remain loosely associated with the bacterial surface, except for a small amount that is released extracellularly. In the present study, we localized the signal sequence to the first 68 amino acids, which are characterized by a highly charged region from amino acids 1–48, followed by a more typical signal peptide with a predicted leader peptidase cleavage site after the amino acid at position 68. Additional experiments established that the SecA ATPase and the SecE translocase are essential for normal export and demonstrated that maturation involves cleavage first between residues 68 and 69, via leader peptidase, and next between residues 441 and 442. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that HMW1 processing, secretion and extracellular release are dependent on amino acids in the region between residues 150 and 166 and suggested that this region interacts with the HMW1B outer membrane translocator. Deletion of the C-terminal end of HMW1 resulted in augmented extracellular release and elimination of HMW1-mediated adherence, arguing that the C-terminus may serve to tether the adhesin to the bacterial surface. These observations suggest that the HMW proteins are secreted by a variant form of the general secretory pathway and provide insight into the mechanisms of secretion of a growing family of Gram-negative bacterial exoproteins.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae is a common respiratory pathogen and an important cause of morbidity in humans. The non-typeable H. influenzae HMW1 and HMW2 adhesins are related proteins that mediate attachment to human epithelial cells, an essential step in the pathogenesis of disease. Secretion of these adhesins requires accessory proteins called HMW1B/HMW2B and HMW1C/HMW2C. In the present study, we investigated the specific function of HMW1C. Examination of mutant constructs demonstrated that HMW1C influences both the size and the secretion of HMW1. Co-immunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid assays revealed that HMW1C interacts with HMW1 and forms a complex in the cytoplasm. Additional experiments and homology analysis established that HMW1C is required for glycosylation of HMW1 and may have glycotransferase activity. The glycan structure contains galactose, glucose and mannose and appears to be generated in part by phosphoglucomutase, an enzyme important for lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis. In the absence of glycosylation, HMW1 is partially degraded and is efficiently released from the surface of the organism, resulting in reduced adherence. Based on these results, we conclude that glycosylation is a prerequisite for HMW1 stability. In addition, glycosylation appears to be essential for optimal HMW1 tethering to the bacterial surface, which in turn is required for HMW1-mediated adherence, thus revealing a novel mechanism by which glycosylation influences cell–cell interactions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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