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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) and adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are the major mediators of the neuromodulatory actions of adenosine in the brain. In the striatum A1Rs and A2ARs are mainly co-localized in the GABAergic striatopallidal neurons. In this paper we show that agonist-induced stimulation of A1Rs and A2ARs induces neurite outgrowth processes in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and also in primary cultures of striatal neuronal precursor cells. The kinetics of adenosine-mediated neuritogenesis was faster than that triggered by retinoic acid. The triggering of the expression of TrkB neurotrophin receptor and the increase of cell number in the G1 phase by the activation of adenosine receptors suggest that adenosine may participate in early steps of neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) are involved in the A1R- and A2AR-mediated effects. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) activity results in a total inhibition of neurite outgrowth induced by A2AR agonists but not by A1R agonists. PKA activation is therefore necessary for A2AR-mediated neuritogenesis. Co-stimulation does not lead to synergistic effects thus indicating that the neuritogenic effects of adenosine are mediated by either A1 or A2A receptors depending upon the concentration of the nucleoside. These results are relevant to understand the mechanisms by which adenosine receptors modulate neuronal differentiation and open new perspectives for considering the use of adenosine agonists as therapeutic agents in diseases requiring neuronal repair.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1058-8388
    Keywords: X-linked gene ; β-galactosidase ; Pgk-lacZ ; glycolysis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Pgk-1 is an X-linked gene encoding 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, an enzyme necessary in every cell for glycolysis. The regulatory sequences of the Pgk-1 gene were used to drive the E. coli lacZ reporter gene and 2 strains of transgenic animals created with this Pgk-lacZ transgene carried on autosomes. The levels of expression of Pgk-1 varied from one adult tissue to another and the transgene was similarly regulated. However, in situ staining of the β-galactosidase encoded by the transgene indicated extensive cell-to-cell variability in its level of expression. A reproducible subset of cells stained darkly for the transgene product. Some of these β-galactosidase positive cells were rapidly proliferating while others appeared to be metabolically very active, suggesting that the Pgk-1 promoter is regulated so as to be more active in cells requiring high levels of glycolysis. Although Pgk-1 is X-linked and subject to X chromosome inactivation, the transgenes were not inactivated in either female somatic or male germ cells. Thus, the Pgk-1 promoter drives transgene expression in all tissues but the levels of expression are not uniform in each cell. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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