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  • 1
    Keywords: RISK ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; FUTURE ; EPIC-GERMANY ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; D-BINDING PROTEIN ; CIRCULATING VITAMIN-D ; CASE-COHORT
    Abstract: Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in observational studies. Also, SNPs to explain variation in 25(OH)D have been identified by genome-wide association studies. Detection of direct associations between SNPs that significantly affect 25(OH)D and CVD risk would indicate a causal role of vitamin D, as reverse causation could be excluded and confounding could be better controlled. Thus, a combined analysis of candidate SNPs in relation to circulating 25(OH)D and CVD risk was carried out. A case-cohort study within the EPIC-Germany study was conducted comprising a randomly drawn subcohort of 2,132 subjects (57.9% women, mean age: 50.6 years) and incident cases of myocardial infarction (n=559) and stroke (n=471) that occurred during a mean follow-up duration of 7.6 years. 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS in baseline plasma samples. Additionally, eight candidate SNPs were assayed. Associations between 25(OH)D, SNPs and the risks of myocardial infarction and stroke were assessed by multivariable regression analyses. Mean 25(OH)D level was 47.2 nmol/L in the subcohort. Four SNPs were associated with 25(OH)D (p〈0.05). In subjects with 25(OH)D levels 〈25 nmol/L, the risks of CVD as composite endpoint (Hazard Ratio: 1.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-2.09), myocardial infarction, and stroke were significantly increased compared to subjects with levels 〉/=50 nmol/L, while no significant linear associations were observed. A SNP score was not related to the risks of total CVD (Hazard Ratio: 1.0, 95% confidence interval: 0.71-1.42), myocardial infarction, or stroke. The same was true concerning single SNPs. Given the lack of association between SNPs and the risks of stroke and myocardial infarction, the present findings do not point to a major causal role of vitamin D in the development of these diseases. However, a detection of modest associations between genetic markers and CVD risk in larger consortia cannot be ruled out.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23935930
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; EXPRESSION ; RISK ; CALCIUM ; inflammation ; METAANALYSIS ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; INSULIN-SECRETION ; VITAMIN-D SUPPLEMENTATION ; GLUCOSE-TOLERANCE
    Abstract: It is unclear whether vitamin D lowers risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In an observational study, we assessed the prospective association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and incident T2D, and evaluated whether it holds up for genetically determined elevated 25(OH)D. We used a case-cohort study nested within the German arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer. From a total cohort of 53,088 participants with a mean follow-up of 6.6 years, we identified a random subcohort of 2,121 participants (57 % women) and 1,572 incident cases of T2D. 25(OH)D was measured in baseline plasma samples retrieved from frozen storage. Mean plasma 25(OH)D in the subcohort was 47.1 (5th-95th percentile 19.6-80.7) nmol/L. After controlling for age, sex, center, season of blood draw, education, and lifestyle, the hazard of T2D decreased across increasing plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D (P linear trend 〈 0.0001). The association became non-linear after adjustment for BMI and waist circumference (P non-linearity 〈 0.0001), with the inverse association being restricted to participants with 25(OH)D concentrations below similar to 45 nmol/L (hazard ratio per 5 nmol/L higher 25(OH)D 0.91, 95 % CI 0.84-0.98). A score predicting genetically determined plasma 25(OH)D by weighting four independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms by their effect on 25(OH)D, explained 3.7 % of the variance in 25(OH)D. The hazard ratio (95 % CI) per 5 nmol/L higher genetically predicted 25(OH)D was 0.98 (0.89-1.08) in the entire study sample and 1.06 (0.93-1.21) in the sub-sample with 25(OH)D 〈 45 nmol/L. This latter finding casts doubt on a strong causal association of 25(OH)D with T2D, but further research in large-scale consortia is needed.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24002339
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  • 3
    Keywords: HEART ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; STROKE ; PARATHYROID-HORMONE ; LEFT-VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY ; CORONARY-ARTERY-DISEASE ; CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE ; CAUSAL-DIAGRAMS ; ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM ; FGF23
    Abstract: Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations have emerged as a novel risk factor for heart failure and stroke but not for myocardial infarction (MI). Yet, most studies on MI were conducted in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and the elderly. Evidence is unclear in subjects without CAD and for stroke subtypes. We investigated the relationships between FGF23 and overall major cardiovascular endpoints, incident MI, ischemic (IS) and haemorrhagic stroke (HS) in middle-aged adults without pre-existing cardiovascular disease. We used a case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Germany, including a randomly drawn subcohort (n = 1,978), incident MI (n = 463) and stroke cases (n = 359 IS; n = 88 HS) identified during a mean follow-up of 8.2 years. Compared with participants with FGF23 levels in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile had a 36 % increased risk for cardiovascular events [hazard ratio: 1.36, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.82] after adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors, patahyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels, dietary calcium and phosphorus intake, and kidney function. However, sub-analyses revealed significant relationships with risk of MI and HS, but not IS. Compared with the lowest quartile, individuals in the top two FGF23 quartiles had a 1.62 (95 % CI 1.07-2.45) fold increased risk for MI and a 2.61 (95 % CI 1.23-5.52) fold increase for HS. Increased FGF23 emerged as a risk factor for both MI and HS. Further studies are warranted to confirm these results and to identify underlying mechanisms.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25527370
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  • 4
    Keywords: POPULATION ; RISK ; HEART ; RENAL-FUNCTION ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; PARATHYROID-HORMONE ; LEFT-VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY ; CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE ; FGF23 ; DIETARY PHOSPHORUS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone involved in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, has been related to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in chronic kidney disease patients and in the general population. However, what determines higher FGF23 levels is still unclear. Also, little is known about the influence of diet on FGF23. The aim of this study was therefore to identify demographic, clinical and dietary correlates of high FGF23 concentrations in the general population. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis within a randomly selected subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany comprising 2134 middle-aged men and women. The Human FGF23 (C-Terminal) ELISA kit was used to measure FGF23 in citrate plasma. Dietary data were obtained at baseline via validated food frequency questionnaires including up to 148 food items. RESULTS: Multivariable adjusted logistic regression showed that men had a 66% lower and smokers a 64% higher probability of having higher FGF23 (〉/= 90 RU/mL) levels compared, respectively, with women and nonsmokers. Each doubling in parathyroid hormone, creatinine, and C-reactive protein was related to higher FGF23. Among the dietary factors, each doubling in calcium and total energy intake was related, respectively, to a 1.75 and to a 4.41 fold increased probability of having higher FGF23. Finally, each doubling in the intake of iron was related to an 82% lower probability of having higher FGF23 levels. Results did not substantially change after exclusion of participants with lower kidney function. CONCLUSIONS: In middle-aged men and women traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors were related to higher FGF23 concentrations. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the potential mechanisms linking increased FGF23 to increased CVD risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26193703
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  • 5
    Abstract: Background: Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals can alter normal physiology and increase susceptibility to non-communicable diseases like obesity. Especially the prenatal and early postnatal period is highly vulnerable to adverse effects by environmental exposure, promoting developmental reprogramming by epigenetic alterations. To obtain a deeper insight into the role of prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in children's overweight development, we combine epidemiological data with experimental models and BPA-dependent DNA methylation changes. Methods: BPA concentrations were measured in maternal urine samples of the LINA mother-child-study obtained during pregnancy (n = 552), and BPA-associated changes in cord blood DNA methylation were analyzed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays (n = 472). Methylation changes were verified by targeted MassARRAY analyses, assessed for their functional translation by qPCR and correlated with children's body mass index (BMI) z scores at the age of 1 and 6 years. Further, female BALB/c mice were exposed to BPA from 1 week before mating until delivery, and weight development of their pups was monitored (n 〉/= 8/group). Additionally, human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were treated with BPA during the adipocyte differentiation period and assessed for exposure-related epigenetic, transcriptional and morphological changes (n = 4). Results: In prenatally BPA-exposed children two CpG sites with deviating cord blood DNA-methylation profiles were identified, among them a hypo-methylated CpG in the promoter of the obesity-associated mesoderm-specific transcript (MEST). A mediator analysis suggested that prenatal BPA exposure was connected to cord blood MEST promoter methylation and MEST expression as well as BMI z scores in early infancy. This effect could be confirmed in mice in which prenatal BPA exposure altered Mest promoter methylation and transcription with a concomitant increase in the body weight of the juvenile offspring. An experimental model of in vitro differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells also revealed an epigenetically induced MEST expression and enhanced adipogenesis following BPA exposure. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that MEST mediates the impact of prenatal BPA exposure on long-term body weight development in offspring by triggering adipocyte differentiation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29721103
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