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  • 1
    Keywords: IN-SITU ; COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION ; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; UTERINE CERVIX ; RECURRENT PATTERN ; DNA COPY NUMBER ; EXPRESSION PROFILES ; TELOMERASE RNA GENE ; INVASIVE CANCER
    Abstract: Background: Overexpression of the human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7 is necessary for the development of distinct lower genital tract cancers. However, secondary cellular genomic alterations are mandatory to promote progression of HPV-induced premalignant stages. We aimed at identifying the chromosomal regions most frequently gained and lost and the disease stage at which the latter occurs. These regions might be relevant for carcinogenesis and could serve as diagnostic markers to identify premalignant lesions with high progression risk towards invasive cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of studies listed in PubMed that analysed chromosomal copy number alterations by comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) in HPV-positive and -negative cancers or premalignant lesions of the anogenital tract (cervix, anus, vagina, penis and vulva). Findings: Data were extracted and analysed from 32 studies. The most common alterations in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (12 studies, 293 samples) were gains at 3q with a rate of 0.55 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-0.70), losses at 3p (0.36, 95%CI 0.27-0.48) and losses at 11q (0.33, 95%CI 0.26-0.43). Gains at 3q were particularly frequent in HPV16-positive cervical SCC (0.84, 95%CI 0.78-0.90). Also more than one quarter of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) harboured gains of 3q (0.27, 95%CI 0.20-0.36), but the rate in low grade CIN was low (0.02, 95%CI 0.00-0.09). For HPV-associated vulvar SCC (four studies, 30 samples) the same common alterations as in cervical SCC were reported. Studies on non-cervical and non-vulvar SCC and premalignant lesions of the lower genital tract are scarce. Interpretation: 3q gains were most frequently found in HPV16-positive cervical SCC. The results suggest the selection of HPV-transformed cell clones harbouring 3q gains in high grade premalignant lesions, while alterations in low grade lesions are rare.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24054023
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; GENE ; transcription ; COMPLEX ; DNA ; AP-1 ; KERATINOCYTES ; BINDING ; BIOLOGY ; ASSAY ; c-Fos ; cervical cancer ; CANCER-CELLS ; HPV ; CERVICAL-CARCINOMA CELLS ; GROWTH ARREST ; TUMORIGENESIS ; COLONY FORMATION ; NOTCH ; SIRNA ; Fra1 ; NEOPLASTIC LESIONS
    Abstract: Background The role of Notch signaling in HPV-mediated transformation has been a long standing debate, as both tumor suppressive and oncogenic properties have been described. We examined whether the dual findings in literature may be explained by gene dosage effects and determined the relation with AP-1, a downstream target of Notch. Methods SiHa cervical cancer cells were transfected with two doses of intracellular active Notch. Non-tumorigenic HPV16-immortalized keratinocytes (FK16A) were transfected with Fra1 specific siRNAs and non-targeting controls. Transfectants were analysed for Notch, Hes, cJun, cFos and Fra1 mRNA expression, Notch pathway activation using luciferase assays, cell viability using MTT assays, anchorage independent growth, AP-1 activity and/or AP-1 complex composition using EMSA. Results In SiHa cells two activation states of Notch signaling pathway were obtained. Moderate Notch activation contributed to increased viability and anchorage independent growth, whereas high level Notch activation decreased anchorage independent growth. The shift in phenotypical outcome was correlated to altered AP-1 activity and complex composition. Moderate Notch expression led to an increased AP-1 transcriptional activity and DNA binding activity, but did not affect complex composition. High levels of Notch additionally led to a change in AP-1 complex composition, from cJun/cFos to cJun/Fra1 dimers, which is exemplary for non-tumorigenic HPV-immortalized cell lines. Conversely, silencing of Fra1 in non-tumorigenic HPV16-immortalized keratinocytes, leading to an enrichment of cJun/cFos dimers, was accompanied with increased colony formation. Conclusion The functional role of Notch in HPV-mediated transformation is dosage dependent and correlated to a change in AP-1
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22271085
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology ecology 19 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6941
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract: 16S rRNA genes from a range of aerobic chemoorganotrophic, alkaliphilic soda lake Bacteria and Archaea have been sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Gram-negative alkaliphiles were found to be confined to the γ3 subdivision of the Proteobacteria, with many isolates related to the Halomonas/Deleya group. Gram-positive alkaliphiles were found in both high % G + C and low % G + C divisions of the Gram-positive lineage, with many isolates being related to the Bacillus group, others to Arthrobacter spp. Alkaliphilic Archaea were relatively closely related to members of the genera Natronococcus and Natronobacterium. An anaerobic, thermophilic isolate has been assigned to a new genus within the Thermotogales.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2303
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Currently, cervical screening is based on cytology alone. Because infection with high-risk human papillomavirus types (hrHPVs) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer, it has been postulated that screening might become more efficient when it is based on combined cytology and hrHPV testing. In this review we will discuss the advantages of added HPV tests in cervical cancer screening, as a quality control for false-negative smears, in triage of women with equivocal smears, in follow-up of women treated for CIN3 or cervical cancer and for the detection of cervical adenocarcinoma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: Purpose: Offering self-sampling of cervico-vaginal material for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing is an effective method to increase the coverage in cervical screening programs. Molecular triage directly on hrHPV-positive self-samples for colposcopy referral opens the way to full molecular cervical screening. Here, we set out to identify a DNA methylation classifier for detection of cervical precancer (CIN3) and cancer, applicable to lavage and brush self-samples. Experimental Design: We determined genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of 72 hrHPV-positive self-samples, using the Infinium Methylation 450K Array. The selected DNA methylation markers were evaluated by multiplex quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP) in both hrHPV-positive lavage ( n = 245) and brush ( n = 246) self-samples from screening cohorts. Subsequently, logistic regression analysis was performed to build a DNA methylation classifier for CIN3 detection applicable to self-samples of both devices. For validation, an independent set of hrHPV-positive lavage ( n = 199) and brush ( n = 287) self-samples was analyzed. Results: Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling revealed 12 DNA methylation markers for CIN3 detection. Multiplex qMSP analysis of these markers in large series of lavage and brush self-samples yielded a 3-gene methylation classifier ( ASCL1, LHX8, and ST6GALNAC5 ). This classifier showed a very good clinical performance for CIN3 detection in both lavage (AUC = 0.88; sensitivity = 74%; specificity = 79%) and brush (AUC = 0.90; sensitivity = 88%; specificity = 81%) self-samples in the validation set. Importantly, all self-samples from women with cervical cancer scored DNA methylation–positive. Conclusions: By genome-wide DNA methylation profiling on self-samples, we identified a highly effective 3-gene methylation classifier for direct triage on hrHPV-positive self-samples, which is superior to currently available methods. Clin Cancer Res; 24(14); 3456–64. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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