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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Computational intelligence 8 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8640
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: The starting point for this commentary is Sacks’ and Doyle's conclusion that a central problem for qualitative physics is automating mathematical model formulation. We believe that model formulation is also a central problem for operations research, and although we have focused on models for production planning rather than for engineering systems analysis, our experience confirms that of Sacks and Doyle, that at least parts of model formulation are amenable to automation. In terms of their recommendations for future research, their strategy seems to emphasize the formalization of mathematical knowledge. We wish to stress that understanding the design or analysis context, the problem domain, and resource constraints on the modeling process is equally important. Methods used in cognitive psychology for understanding human problem solving, such as protocol analysis, can complement mathematical study by helping us understanding the processing that human modelers use to bring mathematical knowledge to bear. We have been using the results of such analyses to guide the creation of a model formulation system (MFS) within the Soar architecture. The use of cognitive studies and computer models in tandem seems to represent a viable strategy for making progress in this area.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1437-9813
    Keywords: Acute suppurative mediastinitis ; Mediastinitis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the era of modern antibiotics, acute suppurative mediastinitis (ASM) without previous surgical intervention or esophageal perforation is a rare infectious complication in childhood. Once infected, the mediastinum offers very little resistance to the spread of infection, due in part to a lack of efficient anatomic barriers. Thus, ASM always constitutes a grave, life-threatening condition. A case of ASM that developed from a retropharyngeal abscess in a previously healthy 10-year-old boy is reported. Repeated cervical and thoracic drainage, massive intravenous antibiotics, and continuous mediastinal irrigation resulted in gradual improvement and complete recovery within 3 weeks. Since a successful outcome depends on early recognition, suitable diagnostic imaging is mandatory. A CT scan proved to be the most accurate diagnostic tool. The anatomy, etiology, and bacteriology of these infections are briefly reviewed. As dramatically illustrated by this case, the appropriate surgical treatment is controversial; the rationale for different approaches is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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