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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Current genetics 10 (1986), S. 823-833 
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Inverted repeat ; Gene order ; Chloroplast genome arrangement ; Vascular plant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have constructed the first physical map of a gymnosperm chloroplast genome and compared its organization with those of a fern and several angiosperms by heterologous filter hybridization. The chloroplast genome of the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba consists of a 158 kb circular chromosome that contains a ribosomal RNA-encoding inverted repeat approximately 17 kb in size. Gene mapping experiments demonstrate a remarkable similarity in the linear order and absolute positions of the ribosomal RNA genes and of 17 protein genes in the cpDNAs of Ginkgo biloba, the fern Osmunda cinnamomea and the angiosperm Spinacia oleracea. Moreover, filter hybridizations using as probes cloned fragments that cover the entirety of the angiosperm chloroplast genome reveal a virtually colinear arrangement of homologous sequence elements in these genomes representing three divisions of vascular plants that diverged some 200–400 million years ago. The only major difference in chloroplast genome structure among these vascular plants involves the size of the rRNA-encoding inverted repeat, which is only 10 kb in Osmunda, 17 kb in Ginkgo, and about 25 kb in most angiosperms. This size variation appears to be the result of spreading of the repeat through previously single copy sequences, or the reverse process of shrinkage, unaccompanied by any overall change in genome complexity.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Inverted repeat ; Colinearity ; Flip-flop recombination ; Fern chloroplast DNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The evolution and recombination of chloroplast genome structure in the fern genus Osmunda were studied by comparative restriction site mapping and filter hybridization of chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs) from three species — 0. cinnamomea, 0. claytoniana and 0. regalis. The three 144 kb circular genomes were found to be colinear in organization, indicating that no major inversions or transpositions had occurred during the approximately 70 million years since their radiation from a common ancestor. Although overall size and sequence arrangement are highly conserved in the three genomes, they differ by an extensive series of small deletions and insertions, ranging in size from 50 bp to 350 by and scattered more or less at random throughout the circular chromosomes. All three chloroplast genomes contain a large inverted repeat of approximately 10 kb in size. However, hybridizations using cloned fragments from the 0. cinnamomea and 0. regalis genomes revealed the absence of any dispersed repeats in at least 50% of the genome. Analysis with restriction enzymes that fail to cleave the 10 kb inverted repeat indicated that each of the three fern chloroplast genomes exists as an equimolar population of two isomeric circles differing only in the relative orientation of their two single copy regions. These two inversion isomers are inferred to result from high frequency intramolecular recombination between paired inverted repeat segments. In all aspects of their general organization, recombinational heterogeneity, and extent of structural rearrangement and length mutation, these fern chloroplast genomes resemble very closely the chloroplast genomes of most angiosperms.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Chloroplast genome evolution ; Ribosomal RNA and protein genes ; Inverted repeat ; Restriction endonucleases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Chloroplast DNA from the fern Osmunda einnamomea was isolated by a sucrose gradient procedure utilizing PEG to stabilize chloroplasts. Analysis with the restriction endonucleases PvuII, Sacl and BstEII indicates a chloroplast genome size of 144 kb. A physical map of the fragments produced by these three enzymes was constructed by filter hybridizations using purified PvuII fragments as hybridization probes. The Osmunda chloroplast genome is circular and contains an inverted repeat 8–13 kb in size. Gene probes from tobacco, corn and spinach were used to map the positions of six genes on the Osmunda chloroplast chromosome. The 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs are encoded by duplicate genes which lie within the inverted repeat. Genes for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, a photosystem II polypeptide, and the alpha and beta subunits of chloroplast coupling factor are located in three different segments of the large single copy region. The Osmunda chloroplast genome is remarkably similar in size, conformation, physical organization, and map positions of known genes, to chloroplast DNA from a number of angiosperms. The major difference between chloroplast DNA from this fern and angiosperms is that the inverted repeat is smaller in Osmunda (8–13 kb) than in angiosperms (22–25 kb).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1615-6110
    Keywords: Cyanobacteria ; Pteridophyta ; gymnosperms ; Synechococcus ; Polystichum acrostichoides ; Psilotum ; Welwitschia ; chlL (frxC) gene ; chlorophyll synthesis ; chloroplast genome ; DNA sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We examinedchlL (frxC) gene evolution using several approaches. Sequences from the chloroplast genome of the fernPolystichum acrostichoides and from the cyanobacteriumSynechococcus sp. 7002 were determined and found to be highly conserved. A complete physical map of the fern chloroplast genome and partial maps of other vascular plant taxa show thatchlL is located primarily in the small single copy region as inMarchantia polymorpha. A survey of a wide variety of non-angiospermous vascular plant DNAs shows thatchlL is widely distributed but has been lost in the pteridophytePsilotum and (presumably independently) within the Gnetalean gymnosperms.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: DNA hybridization ; Repetitive and single copy sequence ; Reiteration and divergence ; Evolutionary rates ; Phylogeny of Osmunda
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Phylogenetic relationships ofOsmunda cinnamomea, O. claytoniana, andO. regalis were explored by means of DNA sequence comparisons. Hydroxyapatite thermal elution profiles of self-reassociated repetitive DNA fragments were very similar, indicating the absence of gross differences in the amount of recent amplification or addition of repetitive DNA in any of these three genomes. Interspecific DNA sequence comparisons showed, in contrast to our earlier interpretation, that repeated DNA sequences ofO. claytoniana are nearly equally diverged from those ofO. cinnamomea andO. regalis. Differences between repetitive sequences of the three species can be interpreted as reflecting amplification events which occurred subsequent to speciation. The data obtained suggest that the threeOsmunda species most likely arose more or less simultaneously from a common ancestor. These findings were verified in experiments with tracer DNA preparations enriched for single copy sequences. On the basis of the hybridization data presented here and of the fossil record, the rate of single copy sequence divergence in the ferns is comparable to that in the primates, although slower than that observed in other animal taxa. From this first evaluation of rates of DNA evolution in plants it would seem that the rates for plants and animals are roughly comparable. The evidence suggests that species divergence is accompanied by further reiteration of preexisting repeat sequences. The rate of addition of repetitive sequences probably is slower in ferns than in angiosperms. This difference might be attributable to the much larger effective generation time in ferns.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: storage protein ; evolution ; napin ; matteuccin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The ostrich fern,Matteuccia struthiopteris L., contains two globulin spore storage proteins of 2.2 S and 11.3 S, with physical characteristics similar to those of seed storage proteins ofBrassica napus (rapeseed) andRaphanus sativus (radish). By the use of a cloned cDNA that encodes the 1.7 SB. napus storage protein (napin), gene sequences that hybridized with napin were detected in fern nuclear DNA, and a 900-nucleotide homologous mRNA was detected in developing spores.In vitro translation of this fern mRNA produced a 22-kD polypeptide comparable in size to the 21-kD precursor polypeptide identified inBrassica. No hybridizations were observed between theBrassica 12 S clone and either fern DNA or developing spore mRNA.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: storage protein ; evolution ; napin ; matteuccin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The ostrich fern,Matteuccia struthiopteris L., contains two globulin spore storage proteins of 2.2 S and 11.3 S, with physical characteristics similar to those of seed storage proteins ofBrassica napus (rapeseed) andRaphanus sativus (radish). By the use of a cloned cDNA that encodes the 1.7 SB. napus storage protein (napin), gene sequences that hybridized with napin were detected in fern nuclear DNA, and a 900-nucleotide homologous mRNA was detected in developing spores.In vitro translation of this fern mRNA produced a 22-kD polypeptide comparable in size to the 21-kD precursor polypeptide identified inBrassica. No hybridizations were observed between theBrassica 12 S clone and either fern DNA or developing spore mRNA.
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