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  • 1
    Abstract: Importance: Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning. Objective: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. Evidence Review: Cancer mortality was estimated using vital registration system data, cancer registry incidence data (transformed to mortality estimates using separately estimated mortality to incidence [MI] ratios), and verbal autopsy data. Cancer incidence was calculated by dividing mortality estimates through the modeled MI ratios. To calculate cancer prevalence, MI ratios were used to model survival. To calculate YLDs, prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights. The YLLs were estimated by multiplying age-specific cancer deaths by the reference life expectancy. DALYs were estimated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Countries were categorized by SDI quintiles to summarize results. Findings: In 2015, there were 17.5 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.7 million deaths. Between 2005 and 2015, cancer cases increased by 33%, with population aging contributing 16%, population growth 13%, and changes in age-specific rates contributing 4%. For men, the most common cancer globally was prostate cancer (1.6 million cases). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs in men (1.2 million deaths and 25.9 million DALYs). For women, the most common cancer was breast cancer (2.4 million cases). Breast cancer was also the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs for women (523000 deaths and 15.1 million DALYs). Overall, cancer caused 208.3 million DALYs worldwide in 2015 for both sexes combined. Between 2005 and 2015, age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 174 of 195 countries or territories. Age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) for all cancers combined decreased within that timeframe in 140 of 195 countries or territories. Countries with an increase in the ASDR due to all cancers were largely located on the African continent. Of all cancers, deaths between 2005 and 2015 decreased significantly for Hodgkin lymphoma (-6.1% [95% uncertainty interval (UI), -10.6% to -1.3%]). The number of deaths also decreased for esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, and chronic myeloid leukemia, although these results were not statistically significant. Conclusion and Relevance: As part of the epidemiological transition, cancer incidence is expected to increase in the future, further straining limited health care resources. Appropriate allocation of resources for cancer prevention, early diagnosis, and curative and palliative care requires detailed knowledge of the local burden of cancer. The GBD 2015 study results demonstrate that progress is possible in the war against cancer. However, the major findings also highlight an unmet need for cancer prevention efforts, including tobacco control, vaccination, and the promotion of physical activity and a healthy diet.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27918777
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  • 2
    Abstract: Importance: Comprehensive and timely monitoring of disease burden in all age groups, including children and adolescents, is essential for improving population health. Objective: To quantify and describe levels and trends of mortality and nonfatal health outcomes among children and adolescents from 1990 to 2015 to provide a framework for policy discussion. Evidence Review: Cause-specific mortality and nonfatal health outcomes were analyzed for 195 countries and territories by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2015 using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling, with subsequent analysis of the findings to describe levels and trends across geography and time among children and adolescents 19 years or younger. A composite indicator of income, education, and fertility was developed (Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) for each geographic unit and year, which evaluates the historical association between SDI and health loss. Findings: Global child and adolescent mortality decreased from 14.18 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 14.09 million to 14.28 million) deaths in 1990 to 7.26 million (95% UI, 7.14 million to 7.39 million) deaths in 2015, but progress has been unevenly distributed. Countries with a lower SDI had a larger proportion of mortality burden (75%) in 2015 than was the case in 1990 (61%). Most deaths in 2015 occurred in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Global trends were driven by reductions in mortality owing to infectious, nutritional, and neonatal disorders, which in the aggregate led to a relative increase in the importance of noncommunicable diseases and injuries in explaining global disease burden. The absolute burden of disability in children and adolescents increased 4.3% (95% UI, 3.1%-5.6%) from 1990 to 2015, with much of the increase owing to population growth and improved survival for children and adolescents to older ages. Other than infectious conditions, many top causes of disability are associated with long-term sequelae of conditions present at birth (eg, neonatal disorders, congenital birth defects, and hemoglobinopathies) and complications of a variety of infections and nutritional deficiencies. Anemia, developmental intellectual disability, hearing loss, epilepsy, and vision loss are important contributors to childhood disability that can arise from multiple causes. Maternal and reproductive health remains a key cause of disease burden in adolescent females, especially in lower-SDI countries. In low-SDI countries, mortality is the primary driver of health loss for children and adolescents, whereas disability predominates in higher-SDI locations; the specific pattern of epidemiological transition varies across diseases and injuries. Conclusions and Relevance: Consistent international attention and investment have led to sustained improvements in causes of health loss among children and adolescents in many countries, although progress has been uneven. The persistence of infectious diseases in some countries, coupled with ongoing epidemiologic transition to injuries and noncommunicable diseases, require all countries to carefully evaluate and implement appropriate strategies to maximize the health of their children and adolescents and for the international community to carefully consider which elements of child and adolescent health should be monitored.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28384795
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  • 3
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  44. gemeinsamen Tagung der Bayerischen Urologenvereinigung und der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Urologie und Andrologie; 20180614-20180616; Rosenheim; DOC18urobay100 /20180517/
    Publication Date: 2018-05-18
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 4
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    Unknown
    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  Gemeinsame Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung (GMA), des Arbeitskreises zur Weiterentwicklung der Lehre in der Zahnmedizin (AKWLZ) und der Chirurgischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft Lehre (CAL); 20190925-20190928; Frankfurt am Main; DOCV29-02 /20190920/
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: copolymer networks in mixed aqueous solvents, bulk and microscopic properties of ; gels of copolymers in mixed aqueous solvents, fluorescence and dynamic rheology of ; microphase separation in graft copolymer gel in mixed aqueous solvents ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Amphiphilic films and hydrogels have been prepared from ethanol/water solutions containing a hydrocarbon-grafted water-soluble cellulose ether. These materials are characterized by dispersed hydrophobic microdomains which form spontaneously in the solvent due to the inherent incompatibility of the side chains with water. At low applied shear stress, the microdomains behave as temporary linkages of finite lifetimes, imparting viscoelastic properties to the networks. The molecular weight between microdomains was found to be independent of the volume fraction of polymer in the gel, and the number of linkages per backbone ranges from 22.8 ± 1.3 to 26.2 ± 1.5 over the frequency range 30-50 rad/s. The behavior of the solutions and gels was characterized using fluorescence and dynamic rheological measurements. It was demonstrated that the microdomains are capable of sequestering water-insoluble solutes. © 1992 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 326 (1987), S. 270-273 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Keywords: Ectodermal cysts ; Dermoids ; Epidermoids ; Diploic cysts ; Cystic lesions of the calvarium ; Diploic defects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Thirteen out of 25 cystic lesions of the infantile skull, radiographically classified as epidermoids or dermoids of the calvarian bones, disappeared spontaneously during early childhood. A further six lesions showed involution. In all, 19/25 lesions were involutive. In no case did we find an enlargement which could be attributed with certainly, to growth after the age of 3 years. These findings strongly support the opinion of Fauré that by far most of these lesions are non-evolutive and generally do not need surgical treatment. Only lesions which do persist beyond the third year of life and grow continuously or begin to grow again need to be operated. Thus, we recommend a conservative attitude and a radiographic follow-up at long intervals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1831
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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