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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Anaesthesia 51 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In order to define the incidence and anatomical site of nasal damage following nasotracheal intubation, we investigated 100 consecutive patients undergoing dental extractions under general anaesthesia. Patients were questioned pre-operatively about the physiological function of their noses and examined by anterior rhinoscopy for anatomical abnormalities. Examinations were repeated postoperatively, looking specifically for haemorrhage, mucosal tears and septal and turbinate disruption. Minor bruising was common (54%) and most frequently involved mucosa overlying the inferior turbinate and adjacent septum. In two cases bruising involved the middle turbinate. There was no relationship between the number of attempts at intubation and subsequent damage. Pre-operative otolaryngological assessment failed to identify those patients who subsequently proved difficult or impossible to intubate nasally and incorrectly predicted difficulty in 11 patients who had pre-existing deviation of the nasal septum. In conclusion, short-term nasotracheal intubation was not associated with significant nasal morbidity, and pre-operative anatomical assessment failed to identify those in whom nasal intubation proved difficult or impossible.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: global model ; three-dimensional ; Lagrangian tropospheric chemistry ; ozone ; NOX ; emission controls
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract A three-dimensional Lagrangian tropospheric chemistry modelis used toinvestigate the impact of human activities on the tropospheric distributionofozone and hydroxyl radicals. The model describes the behaviour of 50 speciesincluding methane, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide andnineorganic compounds emitted from human activities and a range of other sources.Thechemical mechanism involves about 100 chemical reactions of which 16 arephotochemical reactions whose diurnal dependence is treated in full. The modelutilises a five minute chemistry time step and a three hour advection timestepfor the 50,000 air parcels. Meteorological data for the winds, temperatures,clouds and so on are taken from the UK Meteorological Office global model for1994 onwards. The impacts of a 50% reduction in European NOXemissions onglobal ozone concentrations are assessed. Surface ozoneconcentrations decrease in summertime and rise in wintertime, but to differentextents.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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