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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2006-04-21
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; tumor ; carcinoma ; SURGERY ; ASSOCIATION ; PROGNOSTIC-SIGNIFICANCE ; STAGE-I ; PREOPERATIVE CHEMOTHERAPY ; EXTENT ; RETRIEVAL
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) is an established therapy in breast cancer, able to downstage positive axillary lymph nodes, but might hamper their detectibility. Even if clinical observations suggest lower lymph node yield (LNY) after NC, data are inconclusive and it is unclear whether NC dependent parameters influence detection rates by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively the LNY in 182 patients with ALND after NC and 351 patients with primary ALND. Impact of surgery or pathological examination and specific histomorphological alterations were evaluated. Outcome analyses regarding recurrence rates, disease free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were performed. RESULTS: Axillary LNY was significantly lower in the NC in comparison to the primary surgery group (median 13 vs. 16; p 〈 0.0001). The likelihood of incomplete axillary staging was four times higher in the NC group (14.8% vs. 3.4%, p 〈 0.0001). Multivariate analyses excluded any influence by surgeon or pathologist. However, the chemotherapy dependent histological feature lymphoid depletion was an independent predictive factor for a lower LNY. Outcome analyses revealed no significant impact of the LNY on local and regional recurrence rates as well as DFS and OS, respectively. CONCLUSION: NC significantly reduces the LNY by ALND and has profound effects on the histomorphological appearance of lymph nodes. The current recommendations for a minimum removal of 10 lymph nodes by ALND are clearly compromised by the clinically already established concept of NC. The LNY of less than 10 by ALND after NC might not be indicative for an insufficient axillary staging.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24386929
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  • 3
    Keywords: LUNG ; BREAST-CANCER ; PROGRESSION ; METASTASIS ; PROGNOSTIC VALUE ; RECONSTRUCTION ; COLORECTAL-CARCINOMA ; EPITHELIAL-MESENCHYMAL TRANSITION ; CIRCULATING TUMOR-CELLS ; SERIAL SECTIONS
    Abstract: Cancer cell invasion takes place at the cancer-host interface and is a prerequisite for distant metastasis. The relationships between current biological and clinical concepts such as cell migration modes, tumour budding and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unclear in several aspects, especially for the 'real' situation in human cancer. We developed a novel method that provides exact three-dimensional (3D) information on both microscopic morphology and gene expression, over a virtually unlimited spatial range, by reconstruction from serial immunostained tissue slices. Quantitative 3D assessment of tumour budding at the cancer-host interface in human pancreatic, colorectal, lung and breast adenocarcinoma suggests collective cell migration as the mechanism of cancer cell invasion, while single cancer cell migration seems to be virtually absent. Budding tumour cells display a shift towards spindle-like as well as a rounded morphology. This is associated with decreased E-cadherin staining intensity and a shift from membranous to cytoplasmic staining, as well as increased nuclear ZEB1 expression.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25081610
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  • 4
    Keywords: brain ; RECEPTOR ; GROWTH ; IN-VIVO ; BREAST-CANCER ; TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION ; BINDING-PROTEIN ; VARIANT ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTOR ; nonsense-mediated decay
    Abstract: The ubiquitously expressed splicing factor YT521 (YTHDC1) is characterized by alternatively spliced isoforms with regulatory impact on cancer-associated gene expression. Our recent findings account for the prognostic significance of YT521 in endometrial cancer. In this study, we investigated the hypoxia-dependency of YT521 expression as well as its differential isoform activities on oncological important target genes. YT521's potential regulatory influence on splicing was investigated by a minigene assay for the specific target gene CD44. Functional splicing analysis was performed by YT521 knock-down or overexpression, respectively. In addition, YT521 expression was determined under hypoxia. The two protein-generating YT521 mRNA isoforms 1 and 2 caused a comparable, specific induction of CD44v alternative splicing (P 〈 0.01). In a number of oncological target genes, YT521 upregulation significantly altered BRCA2 expression pattern, while YT521 knock-down created a significant regulatory impact on PGR expression, respectively. Hypoxia induced a specific switch towards the processing of two non-protein-coding mRNA variants, of which one is described for the first time in this study. The presented study underlines the comparable regulatory potential of both YT521 isoforms 1 and 2, on the investigated target genes in vivo and in vitro. Hypoxia induces a specific switch in YT521 expression pattern towards the two non-protein coding mRNA variants, the already characterized isoform 3 and the newly discovered exon 8-skipping isoform. The altered YT521 alternative splicing is functionally coupled with nonsense-mediated decay and can be interpreted as regulated unproductive splicing and transcription with consecutive impact on the processing of specific cancer-associated genes, such as BRCA2 and PGR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23765422
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  • 5
    Keywords: GENE-EXPRESSION ; ACTIVATION ; adenocarcinoma ; HYPERPLASIA ; ER-ALPHA ; DOWNSTREAM ; TRACT BINDING-PROTEIN ; NATURALLY-OCCURRING VARIANT ; MESSENGER-RNA VARIANTS ; PTB
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Estrogen receptor alpha (ERa/ESR1) expression is regulated by alternative splicing. Its most frequently detectable exon7 skipping isoform (ERaD7) is a dominant negative variant. Elevated expression of ERaD7 was already detected in endometrial cancer (EC), while its potential prognostic significance has not been characterized so far. Exon7 contains potential binding sites for the two functional splicing regulatory opponents, HNRNPG and HTRA2-BETA1 known to trigger opposite effects on EC outcome. This study served to elucidate the influence of HNRNPG and HTRA2-BETA1 on ERa exon7 splicing regulation and the impact of ERaD7 concentration on type 1 EC outcome. METHODS: Functional in vitro experiments for HNRNPG and HTRA2-BETA1 in regard to the regulatory impact on endogenous and exogenous ERaD7 splicing were performed. Additionally, real-time PCR determined mRNA levels of ERaD7, HNRNPG and HTRA2-BETA1 in 116 type 1 EC patients. RESULTS: HNRNPG and HTRA2-BETA1 were found to be specific regulators of ERa exon7 splicing. While HTRA2-BETA1 promoted exon7 inclusion, HNRNPG antagonized this effect by inducing exon7 skipping (p = 0.004). ERaD7 was detected in 71 out of 116 type 1 EC specimens. Statistical analyses revealed an inverse correlation between ERaD7 mRNA levels and tumor grading (p = 0.029), FIGO stage (p = 0.033) as well as lymph node metastases (p = 0.032), respectively. Furthermore, higher ERaD7 expression could be correlated to an improved disease-specific survival (p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates antagonistic regulatory effects of HNRNPG and HTRA2-BETA1 on ERa exon7 splicing with potential impact on type 1 EC clinical outcome due to the consecutively variable expression levels of the ERa isoform D7.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25884434
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  • 6
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; DIAGNOSIS ; prognosis ; IDENTIFICATION ; SERUM ; MESENCHYMAL TRANSITION ; miR-200 family ; BODY-FLUIDS ; CIRCULATING MICRORNA
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Since recent studies revealed the feasibility to detect blood-based microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) in breast cancer (BC) patients a new field has been opened for circulating miRNAs as potential biomarkers in BC. In this pilot study, we evaluated to our knowledge for the first time whether distinct pattern of urinary miRNAs might be also applicable as innovative biomarkers for BC detection. METHODS: Urinary miRNA expression levels of nine BC-related miRNAs (miR-21, miR-34a, miR-125b, miR-155, miR-195, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-375, miR-451) from 24 untreated, primary BC patients and 24 healthy controls were quantified by realtime-PCR. The receiver operating characteristic analyses (ROC) and logistic regression were calculated to assess discriminatory accuracy. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in the expression of four BC-associated miRNAs quantified as median miRNA expression levels. Urinary miR-155 levels were significantly higher in BC patients compared to healthy controls (1.49vs.0.25; p 〈 0.001). In contrast, compared to healthy controls, BC patients exhibited significantly lower urinary expression levels of miR-21 (2.27vs.5.07; p 〈 0.001), miR-125b (0.71vs.1.62; p 〈 0.001), and miR-451 (0.02vs.0.59 p = 0.004), respectively. The ROC including all miRNAs as well as the group of the four significant deregulated miRNAs separated BC patients from healthy controls with a very high (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.932) and high accuracy (AUC = 0.887), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We were able to demonstrate for the first time the feasibility to detect distinct BC-dependent urinary miRNA profiles. The expression levels of four urinary miRNAs were specifically altered in our cohort of BC patients compared to healthy controls. This distinct pattern offers the possibility for a specific discrimination between healthy women and primary BC patients. This sustains the potential role of urinary miRNAs as non-invasive innovative urine-based biomarkers for BC detection.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25886191
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  • 7
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; MESSENGER-RNA ; CELL-LINES ; VARIANTS ; TUMOR PROGRESSION ; CARCINOMAS ; PROTOONCOGENE ; receptor tyrosine kinase ; TUMORIGENIC ACTIVITIES
    Abstract: The proto-oncogene recepteur d'origine nantais (RON, MST1R) and its alternatively spliced variants are involved in various tumor biological processes, such as cell motility, adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). RON overexpression and the occurrence of specific alternatively spliced RON isoforms have been detected in ovarian cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the role and regulation of cancer-related RON splicing isoforms in primary ovarian cancer. Expression of RON variants (RONDelta165, RONDelta160) was determined in 45 primary ovarian cancer and 4 physiological ovarian tissue specimens by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The results were correlated to clinicopathological parameters. Additionally, expression of splicing factors with known involvement in RON alternative splicing regulation was examined. Increased RON levels were detected in all tumor samples (p=0.001) without differences between the primary tumors and metastases. Alternative RON variants were present in the majority of tumor samples (39 of 45; 86.67%). Potential RONDelta165 occurred more often (82.22%) than potential RONDelta160 or RONDelta155 (24.40%). Several significant correlations of RON and splicing factor expression [e.g. ASF/SFRS1 (p=0.035)] were detected. Correlations of RON expression to clinicopathological parameters were not observed. Significant splicing factor interactions (e.g. SRp55/SRp75: p〈0.001) were observed in tumor samples with alternative RON splicing. Our data demonstrated upregulated RON isoform expression and significant changes in splicing factor expression in primary ovarian cancer. These findings account for an essential regulatory interplay of splicing factor-driven alterations in the RON alternative splicing pattern with subsequent tumor biological consequences in ovarian cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25997828
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  • 8
    Keywords: proliferation ; IDENTIFICATION ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; TUMOR-MARKERS ; TRANSFER-RNA ; MODIFIED URINARY NUCLEOSIDES ; METHYLTHIOADENOSINE PHOSPHORYLASE ; NICOTINAMIDE RIBOSIDE ; MS ANALYSIS ; 1-METHYLADENOSINE
    Abstract: Cancer cells show characteristic effects on cellular turnover and DNA/RNA modifications leading to elevated levels of excreted modified nucleosides. We investigated the molecular signature of different subtypes of breast cancer cell lines and the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Prepurification of cell culture supernatants was performed by cis-diol specific affinity chromatography using boronate-derivatized polyacrylamide gel. Samples were analyzed by application of reversed phase chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Collectively, we determined 23 compounds from RNA metabolism, two from purine metabolism, five from polyamine/methionine cycle, one from histidine metabolism and two from nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism. We observed major differences of metabolite excretion pattern between the breast cancer cell lines and MCF-10A, just as well as between the different breast cancer cell lines themselves. Differences in metabolite excretion resulting from cancerous metabolism can be integrated into altered processes on the cellular level. Modified nucleosides have great potential as biomarkers in due consideration of the heterogeneity of breast cancer that is reflected by the different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Our data suggests that the metabolic signature of breast cancer cell lines might be a more subtype-specific tool to predict breast cancer, rather than a universal approach.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26293811
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  • 9
    Abstract: The cysteine protease cathepsin L (CTSL) is often thought to act as a tumor promoter by enhancing tumor progression and metastasis. This goes along with increased CTSL activity in various tumor entities; however, the mechanisms leading to high CTSL levels are incompletely understood. With the help of the polyoma middle T oncogene driven breast cancer mouse model expressing a human CTSL genomic transgene, we show that CTSL indeed promotes breast cancer metastasis to the lung. During tumor formation and progression high expression levels of CTSL are maintained by enduring translation of CTSL mRNA. Interestingly, human breast cancer specimens expressed the same pattern of 5' untranslated region (UTR) splice variants as the transgenic mice and the human cancer cell line MDA-MB 321. By polyribosome profiling of tumor tissues and human breast cancer cells, we observe an intrinsic resistance of CTSL to stress-induced shutdown of translation. This ability can be attributed to all 5' UTR variants of CTSL and is not dependent on a previously described internal ribosomal entry site motif. In conclusion, we provide in vivo functional evidence for overexpressed CTSL as a promoter of lung metastasis, whereas high CTSL levels are maintained during tumor progression due to stress-resistant mRNA translation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25957406
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  • 10
    Abstract: In recent years, knowledge about metabolite changes which are characteristic for the physiologic state of cancer cells has been acquired by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Distinct molecularly characterized breast cancer cell lines provide an unbiased and standardized in vitro tumor model reflecting the heterogeneity of the disease. Tandem mass spectrometry is a widely applied analytical platform and highly sensitive technique for analysis of complex biological samples. Endo- and exometabolite analysis of the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, -453 and BT-474 as well as the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A has been performed using two different analytical platforms: UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF based on a scheduled precursor list has been applied for highlighting of significant differences between cell lines and HPLC-ESI-QqQ using multiple reaction monitoring has been utilized for a targeted approach focusing on RNA metabolism and interconnected pathways, respectively. Statistical analysis enabled a clear discrimination of the breast epithelial from the breast cancer cell lines. As an effect of oxidative stress, a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio has been detected in breast cancer cell lines. The triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 showed an elevation in nicotinamide, 1-ribosyl-nicotinamide and NAD+ reflecting the increased energy demand in triple negative breast cancer, which has a more aggressive clinical course than other forms of breast cancer. Obtained distinct metabolite pattern could be correlated with distinct molecular characteristics of breast cancer cells. Results and methodology of this preliminary in vitro study could be transferred to in vivo studies with breast cancer patients.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27188315
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