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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of anorganic porous bovine-derived bone mineral (Bio-Oss®) and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane in the treatment of peri-implantitis. A total of 64 implants with a titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS) surface was inserted in eight cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). After a 3-month healing period with plaque control, experimental peri-implantitis characterized by a bone loss of 4–6 mm was induced during a period of 9–18 months. Surgical treatment involving Bio-Oss+membrane, Bio-Oss, membrane, or a conventional flap procedure (control) only was carried out. The animals were sacrificed six months after treatment. Evaluation by clinical parameters, radiography including quantitative digital subtraction radiography, histology, and stereology demonstrated healthy peri-implant tissue irrespective of the applied surgical procedure. However, the amount of re-osseointegration and the total amount of bone (Bio-Oss and regenerated bone) were significantly higher in defects treated with membrane-covered Bio-Oss as compared with the other three treatment procedures. A mean bone-to-implant contact of 36% was obtained within defects treated with membrane-covered Bio-Oss. The corresponding values for the three other treatment procedures were 13–23%. The Bio-Oss particles were in general highly integrated within the regenerated bone, but the particles in the occlusal part of the defects were entirely surrounded by connective tissue irrespective of membrane coverage. The present study demonstrates that surgical treatment involving Bio-Oss covered by an ePTFE membrane is a useful treatment modality of experimental peri-implantitis around implants with a TPS surface in cynomolgus monkeys. However, the treatment outcome is not as encouraging as seen with membrane-covered autogenous bone graft particles documented in a study with same experimental design.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The aim of the present investigation was to assess the effect of four implant surface preparation methods used in the surgical treatment of experimental peri-implantitis with autogenous bone graft and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane. The methods were air-powder abrasive unit+citric acid, air-powder abrasive unit, gauze soaked in saline+citric acid, and gauze soaked alternately in chlorhexidine and saline. A total of 64 implants with a titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS) surface was placed in eight cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). After a 3-month period with plaque control, experimental peri-implantitis was induced. A bone loss of 4–6 mm was established after 9–17 months and plaque control was re-implemented. The peri-implantitis defects were surgically exposed, granulation tissue was removed, and each implant surface was prepared by one of the above-mentioned procedures. The defects were then filled with autogenous bone graft particles and covered by an ePTFE membrane. The animals were sacrificed after 6 months. Evaluation by clinical parameters, radiography including quantitative digital subtraction radiography, histology, and stereology did not reveal significant differences between the methods. Almost total bone regeneration and considerable re-osseointegration were obtained irrespective of the method applied. A mean bone-to-implant contact of 39–46% was observed within the defects. Therefore, the present study of implants with a TPS surface in cynomolgus monkeys indicates that the simplest method involving gauze soaked alternately in chlorhexidine and saline should be the preferred implant surface preparation method in the surgical treatment of peri-implantitis involving autogenous bone graft and ePTFE membrane.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of probing measurements around osseointegrated oral implants. A comparison was made of probe tip position around Astra Tech implants and teeth of eight cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in conditions of i) healthy peri-implant mucosa/gingiva, ii) mild mucositis/gingivitis, iii) severe mucositis/gingivitis or iv) peri-implantitis/periodontitis. Histological sections of 128 probes that were attached to implants or teeth with surrounding tissues were prepared by the cutting-grinding technique. No systematic differences were identified in the clinical and histological estimates of the distance between the mucosal/gingival margin and the probe tip. The differences were mainly smaller than 0.5 mm, and in no case were they larger than 0.7 mm. For implants and teeth with healthy peri-implant mucosa/gingiva, the distance between the probe tip and the alveolar bone was similar and ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mm (P = 0.97). However, the probe tip was closer to bone around implants than around teeth in conditions of mild mucositis/gingivitis (P = 0.034), severe mucositis/gingivitis (P ≤ 0.0001) and peri-implantitis/periodontitis (P ≤ 0.0001). Around implants with severe mucositis and peri-implantitis, the distance was generally smaller than 0.5 mm, whereas teeth with severe gingivitis and periodontitis showed distances that mainly ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mm. In conclusion, the probing measurements around osseointegrated oral implants and teeth were different. Even mild marginal inflammation was associated with deeper probe penetration around implants in comparison to teeth.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract No analysis of the skeletal bone mineral content in patients with juvenile periodontitis seems to be available. The purpose of the present analysis, therefore, was to determine, on the basis of estimation of the skeletal bone mineral content (BMC), if an osteopenia is present in patients with juvenile periodontitis. The material consisted of 30 subjects without known systemic diseases: one group of 15 patients with juvenile periodontitis and a control group of 15 subjects with normal periodontal conditions. Test- and control subjects were paired according to sex, age, height, and weight. Each group comprised four men and 11 women aged 18-31 years. The bone mineral content (BMC) was estimated by gamma-ray photon absorptiometry of both forearms, expressed (in arbitrary units) as the mean value of 6 scans of each forearm. No significant differences were found between the total average of the 6 scans from right and left forearms or between the total mean value for BMC in the test- and in the control group. Conclusively, the analysis shows that the BMC values lie within normal limits in patients with juvenile periodontitis. Therefore, a generalized osteopenia does not seem to be a contributory factor in this disease.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The metronidazole concentration was monitored in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of inflamed periodontal pockets after 1 application of a 25% gel. 12 patients with periodontal disease were included in the study. Metronidazole gel was applied with a syringe into the pockets of 10 teeth with probing depths ≥ 5 mm. Samples of GCF were taken with Periopaper® before application and 4, 8, 12, 24 and 36 h after application. At each time, samples from 2 teeth were pooled in order to obtain a sufficient amount of fluid for analysis. By means of a calibrated Periotron®, the collected volume of GCF was measured. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the amount of metronidazole. MIC50 for anaerobic periopathogens susceptible to metronidazole is below 1 μg/ml. In this study, the concentration obtained was higher than 1 μg/ml in all samples after 4 and 8 h, in 92% after 12 h, in 50% after 24 h and in 8% after 36 h. Thus, metronidazole concentrations in the pockets were generally above MIC50 for susceptible periopathogens 24 h after 1 application of a 25% metronidazole gel.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A total of 84 HIV-infeted homosexual men having either normal oral mucosa (NOM). erythematous candidiasis (EC) or pseudomembranous candidiasis (PsC) were included in the study. The patients were evaluated by median number of peripheral CD4+ cells, CD8+ cells and by lymphocyte function assessed by poke-weed mitogen test. There was a significant difference between CD4+ counts among patients with the two subtypes of candidiasis (95% CI of median difference: 10 240/mm3; P=0.03). but not for pokeweed mitogen response. Survival analysis showed that after 2 y there was no significant difference in development of AIDS between patients with EC and PsC (P= 0.29). If patients with both types of oral candidiasis were pooled and compared with patients with NOM. a significant difference in development of AIDS was found (P= 0.04). It is concluded that HIV-infected patients with oral candidiasis of any subtype (EC or PsC) arc significantly more immune suppressed and show a faster development of AIDS than HIV-infected patients with NOM. However, in this cohort. EC and PsC are of equal importance as predictors for immune suppression and AIDS development.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The classification of periodontitis in various disease categories, including juvenile periodontitis, rapidly progressive adult periodontitis and slowly progressive adult periodontitits is based mainly on differences in disease progression and age group susceptibility. Because dissolution of collagen fibers is an integral part of periodontal attachment loss, we investigated whether the clinical differences among these periodontitis/control groups are reflected in the collagen-degrading activity of gingival fibroblasts isolated from affected tissues. All fibroblast strains isolated from the 4 groups (n=48) displayed cell-associated collagenolytic activity when seeded in contact with a reconstituted film of type I collagen fibrils. Cells from the control group (n = 14) dissolved the collagen fibril film twice as fast as those from each of the 3 disease groups (juvenile periodontitis (n = 13), rapidly progressive adult periodontitis (n = 7), and slowly progressive adult periodontitits (n = 14)). Both interleukin-1β and phorbolester accelerated the rate of dissolution 2-4-fold, but even after cytokine or phorbolester stimulation control cells were still considerably more effective in dissolving the collagen fibrils than cells from the disease groups. The observation made in this study, that dissolution of collagen fibrils by gingival fibroblasts from periodontally diseased individuals is significantly slower than by cells from healthy control subjects, challenges disease paradigms based on a direct relationship between collagenolytic potential and disease activity.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A qualitative and quantitative histological study of the initial healing response adjacent to 24 submerged and non-submerged implants placed in the lower jaws of 6 monkeys is presented. The histomorphometric analysis showed no significant differences in mineralized bone-implant contact length between submerged and non-loaded non-submerged titanium implants. The infrabony defects around some of the implants on the radiographs were significantly correlated to the histological measurements. Qualitatively, a greater number of gingival inflammation cells and a longer junctional epithelium were seen adjacent to non-submerged implants without oral hygiene than were seen adjacent to non-submerged implants with oral hygiene in the initial healing period.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes capable of degrading most macromolecules of the extracellular matrix. It has been assumed that an association exists between MMP activity and periodontal disease progression, but the precise role of MMPs in disease progression is still not fully clarified. Batimastat, or BB-94, is a synthetic broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor not previously examined in periodontal research. If there is an association between MMP activity and periodontal disease progression, then batimastat might be expected to reduce the progression of experimental periodontal disease in rats.Objectives:  The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of batimastat on periodontal status in healthy Sprague-Dawley (SPRD) rats as well as in rats with ligature-induced experimental periodontal disease.Methods and Results:  Periodontal bone destruction was used as a means of evaluating periodontal destruction by measuring periodontal bone loss on defleshed rat jaws and periodontal bone support on radiographs of the jaws. There was significantly more periodontal bone destruction in the groups treated with batimastat than in the placebo and control groups. This accounted for both ligated and non-ligated groups, irrespective of whether periodontal bone loss (p 〈 0.05) or periodontal bone support (p 〈 0.05) were measured.Conclusion:  In conclusion, the results of this study did not support the hypothesis that the MMP inhibitor batimastat could reduce the progression of experimental periodontal disease in rats. Instead, significantly increased bone destruction was found in rats treated with batimastat.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Cementoblast loss and root resorption on the root surface was registered histologically after removal and immediate replantation of maxillary central incisors in monkeys (Cecropithecus aethiops). Incisors were removed with either a conventional extraction technique using forceps or with a special designed extrusion instrument and in both cases teeth were immediately replanted. Altogether 18 monkeys were used for the experiments in which 9 monkeys were sacrificed after 3 d and 9 animals after 8 wk. Histological analysis was made in horizontal sections perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth using either 24 measuring points or 12 sections. Histometric analysis showed extensive cementoblast loss in the periodontal ligament (PDL) and with a maximum of damage occurring on the corner surfaces of the root. Extracted teeth showed significantly more extensive cementoblast loss than extruded teeth. Root resorption was also found in the corner locations and was significantly more frequent in extracted than in extruded teeth. There was a similarity in the distribution of cementoblast loss and root resorption indicating that root resorption develops in the same areas where cementoblast loss takes place, i.e. locations that are more compressed during removal of the tooth and must have caused by mechanical damage to the PDL exerted on the root surface during tooth removal.
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